patterson hall column

Knowledge is Power Contents: Section 3

Chapter 13:
Organization and Leadership for a Dynamic Age

Merger completed in 1950. Hilton the peacemaker. Colvard provides 1950s leadership. James and the growth period. Legates at the helm. Name changes for the school. Biology to the forefront. Changing departments. The training ground. In search of new ideas. Studies and surveys. Four big buildings. Other facilities. Research stations. Peace in the family.

The 1923 Zook Report recommended that the Agricultural Experiment Station and the Agricultural Extension Service "be administered through the college in complete cooperation with the work of resident teaching." Also, agriculture would be one of the main divisions of the college with a dean in charge of each division.

This seems not to have been carried out at all times. Following Kilgore's brief tenure as dean (reportedly because of his inability to gain control over the teaching program), I.O. Schaub served as dean and director of extension from 1925 to 1945 and as acting director of research from 1937 to 1940. L.D. Baver was dean, director of research, and director of instruction from 1945 to 1948. J.H. Hilton filled the same positions from 1948 to 1950.

There appeared to be good cooperation, but during Baver's administration and Hilton's first two years, extension was not generally regarded to be among their responsibilities as deans.

Merger Completed in 1950

A major step in the consolidation of activities under the dean of agriculture occurred in late 1950 following the retirement of I.O. Schaub.l J.H. Hilton, dean of the school and director of the experiment station since January, 1948, continued as dean under the reorganization. R.W. Cummings, associate director of the experiment station since 1948, received the new title of director of research. C.H. Bostian, associate director of instruction during the same period, also received a new title -- director of instruction.

David S. Weaver, assistant director of extension, succeeded Schaub as director of extension.2 R.W. Shoffner was named assistant director of extension to succeed Weaver.

This move clearly designated the dean as the top official charged with the coordination of all phases of the school -- teaching, research, extension. Also, Weaver and Cummings were authorized to perform as directors of their two agencies for purposes of executing documents relating to the U.S. Department of Agriculture. One clear indicator of a more consolidated program was the beginning in 1950-51 of a published annual report covering all three divisions of the school.

Hilton the Peacemaker

When Hilton succeeded Baver as dean in 1948, he brought to the deanship a distinctly different leadership style. Their personalities were different. Baver moved quickly and sometimes abruptly. Hilton was more suave and better oriented toward people. Hilton would have had difficulty doing some of the things that Baver did in discharging people and changing their duties.3

On the other hand, 35 years later the feeling of those who had been in the system at the time was that Hilton's following Baver provided a very effective sequence of administrations. Hilton, while calming the waters, was able to capitalize on the changes that Baver had made. He was able to advance the program without being blamed for stirring up personnel as Baver had done.

R.W. Shoffner thought Hilton's greatest asset was his public relations ability. He said Hilton could go into any group and get attention. "He could meet with any group and they respected him."4 On the transition from Baver to Hilton, Shoffner said Hilton "picked up more or less the thoughts and programs that Baver had stirred up. Hilton began to pick up the pieces and to put them into a program. He gained the support, very strong support, of all the leadership in the state."

Hilton's leadership surely contributed to the smoothness with which the 1950 reorganization proceeded. As new buildings became available in 1952 and 1953, extension specialists were housed with their research and teaching counterparts, and they began to report to their department heads instead of directly to the extension administration.

The plethora of government agricultural agencies that had sprung up in the 1930s was cause for some concern, particularly with the older agencies. As a way to smooth working relationships among agencies with often competing assignments in North Carolina, the State USDA council was formed. (The name was later changed to North Carolina Board of Farm Organizations and Agricultural Agencies.) Eleven organizations and agencies jointly developed statewide agricultural programs in 1948, 1952, and 1961. Hilton was a leader in this movement.5

Hilton presided over the beginnings of the great change in North Carolina agriculture. The 1950 Census of Population did not yet reveal the dramatic changes taking place, showing roughly a 1-1-1 division of the North Carolina population among urban, rural farm, and rural nonfarm residency. The man on the street, and even the man on the farm, did not yet know or understand the changes under way. Hilton prepared the faculty and many of the state's leaders for the change that was to come.

He saw sizable budget increases in all areas and appropriations for facilities that would more than double the space then available for the School of Agriculture.

The new space, the increased budgets, expanded numbers of personnel, and the confidence for the school expressed by the farm people of the state when they approved the first "Nickels for Know­How" referendum in 1951 all led to high spirits and a feeling of optimism throughout the school.

Hilton possessed an important distinction as an administrator. He was the first nonagronomist to head the agricultural program. All of his training, research, and administration had been in animal sciences. It was expected that he would push animal agriculture, which he did. But here again he was able to capitalize on the work of Baver, who had put into practice a dynamic program of livestock feed production, including alfalfa and ladino-grass pastures. Hilton saw significant progress in livestock development in the state before he resigned in 1953 to become the president of Iowa State University.6 He was succeeded by D.W. Colvard, head of the Department of Animal Industry.

Colvard Provides 1950s Leadership

The year 1953 was one of major change. In addition to the deanship change, Chancellor John W. Harrelson, who had headed State College for 19 years, retired. Named to succeed him was Carey H. Bostian, director of instruction in the School of Agriculture. He was succeeded as director of instruction by former State College agronomist Roy L. Lovvorn, who returned to the campus after three years as head of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Weed Investigations Division at Beltsville, Maryland.

Colvard's successor as head of the Department of Animal Industry was J. W. (Joe) Pou. Also in 1953, W.E. Colwell, head of the Department of Agronomy, was named to the new position of assistant director in charge of tobacco research. He was succeeded as department head by E.T. York, Jr.

During Colvard's seven years (1953-1960), massive changes came to the farm. Cotton production declined; livestock production increased. During the 1950s North Carolina began its move to become one of the nation's top poultry-producing states. Capital replaced human labor in farm production. Questions were raised and answers sought concerning marketing farm products and the role of the college in marketing.

Colvard presided over an expanding research program, with increased funding -- from $1,979,050 in 1952-53 to $4,379,433 in 1959-60. Projects ranged from the most basic to the most practical. Outside funding was becoming an important part of the budget. Examples were the development project in Peru and the Agricultural Policy Institute.

Following the big facilities expansion program of the early 1950s, the next major building activity came when the General Assembly allocated funds to enlarge Polk Hall in 1959.

Colvard also presided over a declining student enrollment in agriculture, but several late-1950s activities laid the base for dramatic increases in enrollment during the coming decade. An "open house" first held by the School of Agriculture in 1959 later became a university-wide function and was still an important student recruitment activity in 1984.

A two-day symposium in December, 1957, entitled "Planning for the Future in the School of Agriculture" focused on the enrollment problem. Participants included visiting deans of agriculture, agribusiness leaders, educators, and members of the faculty. In this meeting consensus began to develop concerning a proposal that had been under discussion among the administrative staff regarding a revision of the curriculum. H.B. James, director of instruction, and J.W. Pou, head of Animal Industry, presented and led the discussion on the proposal that the curriculum be divided into three major sections emphasizing agricultural science, agricultural business, and agricultural technology.

As an important addition to the teaching program, the 1959 General Assembly approved a request to establish a two-year program in agriculture.

Colvard helped develop the "agribusiness" concept, giving agriculture a broad definition. He organized advisory committees to help direct the school's programs. In a search for new ideas, trips were made to other states and speakers were brought to the campus.
From the federal government came funding for new extension programs. But in North Carolina the governor and private citizens asked questions about the need for extension and its efficiency. Colvard was able to allay criticism through a study committee that recommended major changes in structure and programs.

Colvard was also the overseer of the college's first major international activity -- a foreign assistance program in Peru. Research Director R.W. Cummings was selected to head that program in 1955. During his two-year absence, Director of Instruction R.L. Lovvorn was moved into the position of acting director of research. The vacant resident instruction position was filled on an acting basis, first by Botanist H.T. Scofield and then by Victor A. Rice, a 1916 State College graduate who had retired as the dean of the School of Agriculture at the University of Massachusetts.

Another change in 1955 was the creation of a new position of assistant director of research, filled by H.A. Stewart, head of the animal husbandry section in the Department of Animal Industry.

Also in research, W E. Colwell resigned in 1957 to return to the family farm in Nebraska. He was succeeded by Kenneth R. Keller as assistant director in charge of tobacco research.

Cummings did not return to the college following his two years in charge of the agricultural mission to Peru, opting instead to join the Rockefeller Foundation in India.7 In 1957 Lovvorn was promoted from acting director to director of research, and H.B. James, head of the Department of Agricultural Economics, was named director of instruction. James was succeeded as department head by C.E. Bishop.

In other administrative changes in the1950s, Homer C. Folks filled the new position of assistant director of instruction with the primary responsibility of developing and administering the new two-year program, and C. Brice Ratchford succeeded retiring John W. Goodman as assistant director of extension in 1954. Ratchford resigned in 1959 to become extension director in Missouri and was succeeded by George W. Smith in 1960. Also in extension, state home demonstration agent Ruth Current's title was changed to assistant director of extension in 1958.

Colvard resigned in 1960 to accept the presidency of Mississippi State University.8 He was succeeded by H.B. James.

James and the Growth Period
The college and university administrations again looked inward in selecting James, a school leader, to replace Colvard as dean. As director of instruction, H. Brooks James had been the chief architect in the design of a new instruction program in 1958, and it became his responsibility to develop and administer the new two-year agricultu­ral program. During the 10-year period from 1960 to 1970, James and E.W. Glazener, who succeeded him as director of instruction, saw the number of students in on-campus agricultural programs grow from 907 to 2,155.

Student enrollment was only one of the growth areas during James's tenure. The experiment station budget increased from $4,379,433 in 1959-60 to $11,624,226 in 1969-70. During the same decade, the extension budget increased from $5,286,530 to $10,149,967. A major building program was carried out. The number of faculty members in the school increased from some 480 in 1960 to approximately 750 in 1970.

The James administration participated in further integration of extension specialists into the departmental programs. A number of specialists were given tenure and faculty rank in 1962. In 1963 a new program to provide graduate instruction for extension personnel was launched.

International activity was greatly expanded, with some 30 full-time positions in Peru during the height of the Peruvian program. The school joined four other universities in an international soils program.

Environmental concerns received attention. Agriculture was recognized as a polluter of the environment and also as a victim of the effects of pollution. The school entered into marine sciences and water resource programs.

Planning became a top priority. An agricultural program was developed for Governor Terry Sanford in 1961. Long-range plans were developed by the school and a series of five-year extension long-range plans was implemented.

There was a great expansion in the biological sciences area. Two new departments were created -- Biochemistry and Microbiology.
Marketing and food processing moved to the forefront. In 1961 a new department was created to give emphasis to food processing. That same year a new position, entitled assistant director for marketing and jointly funded by research and extension, was established. J.C. Williamson, an agricultural economist, filled this position until 1968, when he was appointed assistant director of research upon the retirement of H. Arlo Stewart. Following the 1970 resignation of Research Director Roy L. Lovvorn to become the administrator of the Cooperative State Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Williamson moved into the top research post in the school. He was succeeded as assistant director by Ralph McCracken.

Other station administrative changes in the 1960s included the appointment of H.F. Robinson as assistant director and head of the newly created Institute of Biological Sciences. After Robinson was promoted to university dean for research, this position was filled by Nash Winstead from 1965 to 1967 and by Lawrence Apple from 1967 until the institute was discontinued in 1971.

James oversaw considerable shuffling of the extension administration. On his retirement in 1961, Director D.S. Weaver was given a two-year appointment as special assistant to the dean. At the same time, Assistant Director R.W. Shoffner was appointed director for a two-year period. Also, George Hyatt, Jr., head of the Department of Animal Science, was given the position of associate director, to become director in 1963. At that time Shoffner, who was not fully in agreement with these changes, would succeed Weaver in the position of assistant to the dean. Shoffner filled that position for only one year, opting to finish out his long association with the college as the director of foundations. The position of assistant to the dean was discontinued.

On Hyatt's elevation to director in 1963, Assistant Director George Smith was moved into the associate director position, which he held until his accidental death in 1970.

J.E. Foil served as assistant director for county operations from 1963 until 1975. In 1968 the position of assistant director for marketing (one-half extension), held by J.C. Williamson, was made a full-time extension position for marketing and special programs, to which George Capel was appointed.

In the position of assistant director for home economics, Ruth Current retired in 1961 and was succeeded by Eloise Cofer the following year.

Another retiring veteran was L. R. Harrill, assistant director for 4-H programs, in 1963. Carlton Blalock was named to succeed him in 1964.

A new position, that of assistant director for training, was created in 1963. It was filled by E.J. Boone, who would also serve as head of the emerging Department of Adult Education.

In 1965, the position of Negro state agent, filled by R.E. Jones, was changed to assistant director.

In resident instruction, E.W. Glazener, head of the Department of Poultry Science, was named to succeed Brooks James as director of instruction in 1960. Serving as assistant director in this division were Homer Folks (1959-1963}, J.N. Young (1963-65), Darrell Miller (1965-67), and H.B. Craig (1967)

James resigned in 1970 to become vice-president for research and public service of the Consolidated University of North Carolina.9 E. W. Glazener served as acting dean until J. E. Legates was named dean in 1971.

Legates at the Helm

J. Edward Legates joined the faculty of the School of Agriculture as a specialist in animal breeding in 1949. In 1958 he was appointed head of a new section for animal breeding in the Department of Animal Industry. From there he moved to the deanship in 1971.
The growth experienced in the 1960s continued through the early 1970s before leveling off as both state and federal budgets came under pressure from lawmakers and taxpayers.

The budgets did increase from 1970 to 1982. The station budget inereased from $12,371,906 in 1970-71 to $35,777,001 in 1981-82. The Extension budget went from $11,198,143 to $29,178,005 during the same l3-year period. However, inflation rose to 13.3 percent in 1979 and at both state and federal levels the percentage of the budgets allocated to the agricultural schools of the land-grant colleges and universities gradually declined.

New outside funds were generated. Through the four supporting foundations (see Chapter 14), upwards of $1 million was generated each year. Also, two tobacco companies each contributed more than $1 million to the school's programs.

More sophisticated hardware for research, extension, and classroom teaching gave more production and greater results. But with some 80 percent of operating funds allocated for salaries and with salary increase the first priority at each budget session, support budgets were strained to maintain and upgrade the operation. Capital improvement funds were especially hard to obtain during the 1970s and early 1980s.

Legates made especially effective use of the commodity promotion associations that were organized for almost all major crop and livestock farmers in the state. Their leaders helped formulate the budget requests and present the institution's case to the state legislators. The same people provided input into research and extension programs through commodity reviews that began in 1975. Representatives of a commodity association spent one day on the campus every three years, hearing reports of research and extension activities under way and then making recommendations to school administrators.

Throughout the 1970s there were continuing predictions of reduced college enrollments because of the declining birth rate dur­ing the 1950s. But each year a larger percentage of the high school graduates went to college, helping to hold enrollments up. Also, new programs attracted additional students, particularly those in the premedical, predental, and preveterinary areas, and subjects related to the environment caught the fancy of many people during the decade. Young women became attracted to the natural sciences and enrolled in increasing numbers.

Total enrollment for the school peaked in 1975 with 3,965 students and ranged from 3,511 to 3,754 through 1982. Undergraduate enrollment also peaked in 1975, with a total of 2,900 students seeking the baccalaureate degree, and ranged from 2,389 to 2,668 through 1982. The number of students in the two-year Agricultural Institute peaked at 418 in 1980 and had dropped to 376 in 1982.

Legates, who had established an international reputation as an animal geneticist, led the school into an expanded international program. During his tenure, the school was involved in a soil testing program in Latin America and Asia. In 1975 an international root­knot nematode project was established in Latin America and Africa. The school became involved in a small ruminant research project in South America and Africa in 1978. In 1981 the school was selected to administer a five-year, $16,600,000 tropical soils management research and training program.

The Peruvian contract ended in 1973 after 17 years of activity in that country. Government upheavals there undid much of the progress that had been made, but in 1982 the School of Agriculture and Life Sciences was again invited back to assist with the development of agricultural research and extension in Peru.

The school underwent a number of extensive planning projects during the 1970s, including a university-wide self-study in 1971 and a statewide university system evaluation in 1974. A series of departmental reviews was instituted with assistance of the Cooperative State Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Responding to national concerns was particularly noticeable at the school during the 1970s. There were new programs on land and in the sea. To monitor and evaluate pesticide residues, a special laboratory was set up. Animal waste disposal and nutrient runoff from farmlands was critically analyzed.

New programs were developed in cooperation with the Sea Grant, Water Resources Research Institute, and Wildlife and Fisheries programs. Also begging for attention were energy conservation, genetic engineering, and biotechnology.

The Department of Veterinary Science was established in 1974 with the nucleus (personnel and courses) coming from the animal disease work in the Department of Animal Science. When the School of Veterinary Medicine was established, this department and other veterinary research and extension work were merged with the new school.

In research there was a name change. In 1977, on the 100th anniversary of the experiment station's founding, the name was changed from Agricultural Experiment Station to Agricultural Research Service. The new name reflected the fact that the unit represented an activity more than a location or physical entity.

J.C. Williamson served as director of research until 1976 when he was replaced by Assistant Director K.R. Keller. Keller retired in 1979 and was succeeded by Durward Bateman, a North Carolina native whose most recent position had been as chairman of the Department of Plant Pathology at Cornell University. Thurston Mann succeeded Keller as assistant director for tobacco research until his retirement in 1983. Mann was succeeded by W.H. Johnson. On the resignation of Ralph McCracken from another of the assistant director positions in 1973, George Kriz was named to this post and later promoted to associate director.

In recognition of the cooperative work with other schools, Richard J. Preston, dean of the School of Forestry, was named assistant director of research in 1968. Eric Ellwood held this position from 1971 to 1978, and the position was filled by Ellis Cowling after 1978. In 1982 C.E. Stevens, associate dean and director of research for the School of Veterinary Medicine, was named assistant director of the Agricultural Research Service.

In extension, Carlton Blalock was named director on the retirement of George Hyatt in 1978. Blalock likewise retired in 1981 and was succeeded by Chester Black. Blalock had served as assistant director for 4-H from 1964 to 1970 and as associate director from 1970 to 1978. Black had followed a similar path, serving as assistant director for 4-H from 1970 to 1976, as assistant director for county operations (succeeding Ed Foil) from 1976 to 1978, and as associate director during Blalock's tenure as director.

Robert C. (Bob) Wells succeeded Black as associate director of Extension. Paul Dew was named director for county operations in 1979, and Donald L. Stormer succeeded Black as assistant director for 4-H in 1976. D.G. Harwood, Jr. was named assistant director for agriculture and special programs following the death of George Capel in 1975. In home economics, Martha Johnson succeeded Eloise Cofer on her retirement in 1980. In a new position, Joseph A. Phillips became assistant director for community and rural development in 1982. E.J. Boone continued as assistant director for training.

J.E. Legates retired from the deanship on January 31,1986. He was succeeded by Durward Bateman, promoted from his research director position. Also in 1986, E.W. Glazener announced his intention to retire as director of instruction effective December 31, after 26 years and five months in this position. This term accorded to Glazener the longest tenure of anyone in a top administrative post in the history of the school, eclipsing the extension directorship tenure of I.O. Schaub (July 1, 1924-0ctober 1,1950) by five months. Also, Legates's period as dean (1971-1986) gave him the longest tenure in this position of anyone except Schaub, who served as dean of the school from 1926 until 1945.

Name Changes for the School

On July 1, 1950, the Division of Forestry became the School of Forestry -- a goal long sought by the forestry faculty. To accommodate the move, the School of Agriculture became just that, dropping the reference to forestry in its name.

The ties were not severed, however. The School of Forestry remained in its Rick Hall locations until Kilgore Hall was completed in 1952. There forestry shared a building with Horticulture until buildings for forestry were constructed along the north side of Western Boulevard. In programs the two schools continued to have close working arrangements -- forestry specialists of the Agricultural Extension Service housed with the forestry school, and a large share of that school's research budget coming from the Agricultural Research Service.l0

A far more significant name change for the agricultural school came in 1963. The account of the change in the 1963 school annual report began with a quote from the head of another land-grant school:

It has been said that the second half of the 20th century belongs to the biological or life sciences. University of California Chancellor Clark Kerr has said:

"The fastest growing intellectual field today is biology. ... The 'code of life' can now be read; soon it will be understood. ... It is an intellectual discovery of unique and staggering proportions. Secrets of the atom may hold no greater significance ... than the secrets still hidden in the genetic code.

"If the first half of the 20th century may be said to have belonged to the physical sciences, the second half may well belong to the biological. Resources within the university will be poured into the new biology, and into the resulting new medicine and agriculture, well supported as they already are."11

On February 1, 1964, the School of Agriculture became the School of Agriculture and Life Sciences.

Biology to the Forefront

Basic sciences, as well as the production departments, had been on the move. Botany and zoology continued to undergird the plant and animal programs. With the advent of newer agricultural chemicals for pest control, entomology and plant pathology increased in importance.

In 1950 the personnel in these four areas were designated as faculties and placed in the Division of Biological Sciences, headed by D.B. Anderson. Faculties, the four areas were called. Heading them up were H.T. Scofield in botany, C.F. Smith in entomology, J.H. Jensen in plant pathology, and F.S. Barkalow in zoology. A familiar name missing from the administrative ranks was that of Zeno P. Metcalf, who remained on the faculty until his 1955 retirement brought to an end the illustrious North Carolina career that began with the N.C. Department of Agriculture in 1908. Metcalf dormitory on the campus was named for him ..

The genetics faculty was added to the Division of Biological Sciences in 1951. Genetic research had grown up in close connection with the plant and animal breeding work in five departments -- Agronomy, Animal Industry, Horticulture, Poultry, and Experimental Statistics. A unique feature of the genetics faculty, however, was that it was not to function by itself but rather as a coordinating nucleus. There would be four staff members in genetics, headed by S.G. Stephens, who would work closely with about 20 other geneticists in other departments who would be considered associate members of the genetics faculty. Gradually, over the years, genetics personnel were pulled into the Genetics Department, beginning with the addition of a quantitative genetics program, which was administered in the Institute of Statistics, when Genetics was designated a department in 1958.

The departmental designation for the five faculties in the Division of Biological Sciences came in 1958 when the division was disbanded and the five faculties were returned to or granted departmental status. Continuing as heads of the departments were H.T. Scofield in Botany and Bacteriology (the name had been changed from Botany), C.F. Smith in Entomology, and F.S. Barkalow in Zoology. Heading the Department of Plant Pathology was D.E. Ellis, who had succeeded J.H. Jensen on his resignation in 1954; heading the Department of Genetics was H.F. Robinson, who succeeded S.G. Stephens in 1958.

As the biological sciences continued to develop, the Institute of Biological Sciences was created in 1962, with H.F. Robinson as director. The new position filled by Robinson also carried the title of assistant director of the Agricultural Experiment Station. Robinson's replacement as head of the Genetics Department was Thurston Mann. Also in 1962, Fred Barkalow was succeeded by B.S. Martof.
Two additional changes came in 1964. G.R. Noggle succeeded H.T. Scofield as head of Botany and Bacteriology and E.H. Smith succeeded Clyde F. Smith as head of Entomology. Other department headship changes also occurred in the biological sciences. In Botany, Noggle was succeeded by Jerome Miksche in 1977. In Entomology, Ed H. Smith was replaced by Kenneth J. Knight in 1967, who was then succeeded by Ronald J. Kuhr in 1981. In Genetics, Thurston Mann was succeeded by John Scandalios in 1975. In Plant Pathology, Don E. Ellis was succeeded by Robert Aycock in 1973. The Department of Zoology was headed by David E. Davis from 1967 to 1976, followed by John Vandenbergh.

Changing Departments

On January 1, 1956, the Department of Agronomy was divided into the Department of Field Crops and the Department of Soils. J.W. Fitts, a member of the faculty since 1952, was named to head the Department of Soils. Paul H. Harvey, who joined the State College faculty in 1938, was named to head the Department of Field Crops. The division came upon the resignation of E.T. York as department head. Fitts served as head of the Soils Department until 1963, when he was succeeded by Ralph McCracken. Following McCracken's promotion to assistant director in 1971, Charles McCants was named as his replacement. McCants held the position until 1981, when he was succeeded by Robert H. Miller. Harvey served as head of the Field Crops Department until 1974. He was succeeded by Billy E. Caldwell the following year. Both departments underwent a name change in 1962. The Field Crops Department became the Department of Crop Science; the Soils Department became the Department of Soil Science.

The Department of Food Science and Processing was created in 1961. Personnel were pulled from several departments to put together the new department -- meats and dairy manufacturing from Animal Industry, fruit and vegetable processing from Horticulture, and poultry products from Poultry Science. Veteran dairy manufacturing expert William M. Roberts was named to head the department, a position he held until his retirement in 1980. He was succeeded by David M. Lineback. In 1962 the name of the department was changed to Food Science. Two new departments were spawned from the five constituting the Division of Biological Sciences and the Institute of Biological Sciences. Both Biochemistry and Microbiology became departments in 1965. Named head of Biochemistry was Gennard Matrone; named head of Microbiology was James B. Evans. S.B. Tove succeeded Matrone as head of Biochemistry following Matrone's death in 1975. Biochemistry was jointly administered by the School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences.
A Department of Extension Personnel Development, headed by E.J. Boone, was created in 1963. Later the department name was changed to the Department of Adult Education, and again in 1970 to the Department of Adult and Community College Education. Beginning in 1965 the department was jointly administered by the School of Education.

The Department of Veterinary Science was established in 1974 to provide research and extension services to the state's expanding livestock industry. Making up the department initially were Department Head Terrence M. Curtin and four veterinarians from the departments of Animal Science and Poultry Science. The department existed until its activities were merged into the new School of Veterinary Medicine in 1979.

In addition to Adult Education and Biochemistry, four other departments developed across-school ties. Jointly administered by the School of Agriculture and Life Sciences and other schools were the departments of Biological and Agricultural Engineering (School of Engineering), Economics and Business (School of Humanities and Social Sciences), Sociology and Anthropology (School of Humanities and Social Sciences), and Statistics (School of Physical and Mathemat­ical Sciences).

The Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering (changed from Agricultural Engineering in 1965) was headed by F. J. Hassler, who succeeded Wallace Giles on his retirement in 1961.

The Department of Agricultural Economics, located in the School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, and the Department of Economics, located in the School of Liberal Arts (later the School of Humanities and Social Sciences) were merged into one department ­- the Department of Economics -- in 1965. C.E. Bishop, formerly head of Agricultural Economics, was named head of the combined departments. The department was renamed the Department of Economics and Business in 1974. Bishop resigned in 1966 and was succeeded as department head by William D. Toussaint. Toussaint held the position until 1982, when Dale Hoover took over the departmental reins.

The Department of Sociology and Anthropology also resulted from the merging in 1966 of two departments in different schools ­- the Department of Sociology and Anthropology in the School of Liberal Arts and the Department of Rural Sociology in the School of Agriculture and Life Sciences. Selz C. Mayo, who had succeeded C. Horace Hamilton as head of the Department of Rural Sociology in 1959, also headed the department in the School of Liberal Arts and continued as head of the new combined department of Sociology and Anthropology. Mayo was succeeded by Ronald C. Wimberley on his retirement in 1982.

David Mason headed the Department of Statistics (formerly Experimental Statistics) from 1962 until his retirement in 1981. He was succeeded by Daniel L. Solomon.

Two other departments underwent name changes in 1962 -­ Animal Science from Animal Industry and Horticultural Science from Horticulture.

George Hyatt succeeded J.W. Pou as head of the Department of Animal Industry in 1958. On Hyatt's elevation to the associate directorship of extension, he was succeeded by I.D. Porterfield in 1962. Porterfield was succeeded by Charles A. Lassiter in 1976.
In Horticulture, Fred Cochran succeeded retiring M.E. Gardner in 1956. Clive Donoho served as head of this department from 1967 to 1973, followed by James Strobel from 1974 to 1976 and A.A. DeHertogh in 1978.

What was initially the Division of Publications underwent several name changes -- to the Department of Publications in 1950, to the Department of Agricultural Information in 1953, to the Division of Agricultural Information in 1954, to the Department of Agricultural Information in 1962, and to the Department of Agricultural Communications in 1981. Veteran Editor Frank Jeter headed this department until his death in 1955. O.B. Copeland served as head from 1956 to 1959, followed by William L. Carpenter from 1959 to 1980 and David M. Jenkins in 1980.

In Poultry Science, the only department that did not undergo at least a name change between World War II and 1984, veteran administrator Roy S. Dearstyne retired in 1955. E.W. Glazener served as department head until being promoted to director of resident instruction in 1960. Henry Garren served as department head from 1960 to 1968, followed by Robert Cook.

In 1960 the Department of Chemistry was moved from the School of Agriculture to become one of the departments making up the new School of Applied Mathematics and Physical Sciences (later changed to Physical and Mathematical Sciences). Other departments comprising this new school were Statistics (still jointly administered by Agriculture), Physics, and Mathematics.

The Training Ground

Quality personnel -- one of the ingredients necessary for success in an academic institution -- has been liberally credited with the growth, development, and achievement of the School of Agriculture and Life Sciences at North Carolina State University. L.D. Baver, in a 1978 interview, said, "The key for a successful institution is the quality of the personnel -- and the training of that personnel."12

But quality in personnel is expensive to acquire and difficult to keep. The bringing in of "bright young men" was a phrase often heard when the authors talked with people who had association with the institution. Some of these bright young men stayed for long and distinguished careers, but a large number moved on, achieving higher positions in the academic world. Perhaps the outward and upward advance of personnel documents the wisdom of bringing in these "bright young men."

Charles W. Dabney, the second director of the Agricultural Experiment Station (1880-87) resigned to accept the presidency of the University of Tennessee. In later life he served as an assistant secretary of agriculture and president of the University of Cincinnati.
Deans J. H. Hilton and D.W. Colvard moved directly from the deanship to the presidency of major land-grant universities -- Hilton to Iowa State and Colvard to Mississippi State.

Station Agriculturist Milton Whitney (1886-87) later headed a division of soils in the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and Charles W. Burkett, a professor of agriculture from 1901 until 1906, resigned to become director of the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station.
Between his two tenures in extension (1909 to 1913 and 1924 to 1950), I.O. Schaub was director of the USDA's southern extension region. County and district agent J.W. Mitchell also served as a regional director in the USDA.

In the biological sciences area, L.H. Snyder, an early professor of genetics who resigned in 1930, became president of the University of Hawaii. Plant Pathologist Frank Poole was named to the presidency of Clemson College in 1940. Plant Pathology head J.H. Jensen resigned in 1953 to become provost at Iowa State University. Later he was president of Oregon State University. H.F. Robinson became vice chancellor of the University of Georgia System. Later he was provost at Purdue before returning to his native state as chancellor of Western Carolipa University.

From Horticultural Science, Clive Donoho went to Ohio as assistant director and then director of research and James Strobel moved to Mississippi as president of the Mississippi University for Women. Agronomy Department Head E.T. York served as federal extension director, director of extension in Alabama, vice president for agriculture at the University of Florida, and head of the Florida System of Higher Education. Assistant Director Homer C. Folks became associate dean of agriculture at the University of Missouri and the first coordinator of teaching of agriculture in land-grant institutions at the federal level. Henry W. Garren, head of the Department of Poultry Science, became dean of agriculture at the University of Georgia.

From his extension administrative position, C.B. Ratchford moved to Missouri as director of extension and later served as president of the university system in Missouri. Entomology Department Head E.H. Smith was director of extension in New York, and district leader H.M. McNeil became director of extension in New Hampshire. In Animal Industry, J.W. Pou became director of extension in Arizona and M.B. Wise became an extension administrator in Virginia. John Gray, in charge of forestry extension, went on to head forestry work at the University of Florida. In farm management and marketing, John Curtis became director of extension in Maryland, and Moyle Williams became associate director of extension in Illinois.

Station directors R.Y. Winters, R.M. Salter, and R.L. Lovvorn moved into administrative positions in the USDA.

Three North Carolina State University faculty members held the post of vice president for research and public affairs in the University of North Carolina system between 1966 and 1984 -- C.E. Bishop, H.B. James, and Walton Jones. Bishop later served as president of the universities of Maryland, Arkansas, and Houston. D.B. Anderson also served as vice president of the university system. Carey Bostian, R.W. Cummings, Nash Winstead, Lawrence Apple, Jack Rigney, and W.L. Turner moved to campuswide administrative posts at North Carolina State University.

In Search of New Ideas

The land-grant college system has long been touted for its closeness to the people. A facet of this closeness is the feedback mechanism it provides from the client to the college headquarters.

When a county agent works with an individual, a family, an industry, or a community organization, the contact between agent and client has been made primarily because of some problem that needs solving or some technical information desired. If the information needed to take care of the situation is not available to the agent, the request for information is passed from agent to extension specialist. If the specialist does not have the information needed, the word is passed to the appropriate researcher who presumably will supply the information or develop research activity to seek the answer.

In some instances the specialist, researcher, and administrator may have direct clientele contact. Researchers regularly appear at research station field days, commodity association meetings, and commodity reviews. The statement is often made that many farmers go directly to the specialist or researcher -- bypassing the county agent system.

Administrators have devised several specific mechanisms for bringing about direct contact with clientele.

In the 1950s a school advisory council was appointed by the dean. This group met twice yearly to analyze and critique school programs and to suggest new activity. Members of the council solicited support from the members of the General Assembly. In 1959, as the Agricultural Institute was being developed, an advisory committee for this program was established. The extension advisory system was strengthened in 1979, with revised systems in the counties and the appointment of the first statewide advisory council.

In 1970 a series of 21 meetings for county directors of the Agricultural Foundation (l for each county) and the public were held across the state. In these meetings administrators discussed aspects of the school's program and invited comment. Similar meetings were held every other year. The extension service led the effort to get commodity associations established -- one for almost every crop and livestock group in the state -- and worked closely with them. A general characteristic of these associations was an annual meeting on the campus, in Raleigh, or elsewhere, usually in the winter, with many of them also holding a summer meeting. School personnel regularly appeared on their programs and the members of the board of directors of the affected commodity association were expected to attend the commodity reviews. Also, commodity association officers often invited school administrators to meet with them, and most (or all) of the associations funded projects (research and extension) of special interest to them.

Beginning in 1969 school administrators, including department heads, made a number of bus tours to various parts of the state as a means of keeping abreast of the state's changing argiculture.

The search for new ideas was taken to the highways and the skyways. In October, 1956, Dean Colvard led members of the school advisory committee on a flying tour of agricultural programs at Purdue, Iowa State, Wisconsin, and Michigan State. Twenty-one agricultural leaders made the trip in a chartered airplane. Donated funds were used to make the trip. In addition to teaching, research, and extension programs in general, the group specifically looked at basic research and two-year instruction programs at the host institutions.

A similar trip occurred in 1961, when the topic was food science and processing. As part of establishing a new department in food science, Dean James led a party of 10 on a week-long tour of colleges and facilities in California, Oregon, and Washington. The vast scope of the food processing industry on the West Coast and the role of food processing in the total agribusiness picture was clearly evident to those making the trip.

Starting in 1955 and running through 1965, an annual Agribusiness Caravan was planned by Wayne Corpening, agricultural official with Wachovia Bank and Trust Company. The School of Agriculture, the N.C. Department of Agriculture, and Wachovia jointly sponsored the tours, which ranged up to two weeks in length for the one to the European Common Market. They were open to anyone who wished to attend. Participants paid their own way.

Studies and Surveys

Numerous surveys have been conducted, particularly in relation to extension programs. Two major problems showed up in program projection meetings held in 98 of the state's 100 counties in the mid-1950s. Low net income was the major problem listed in every county. A second major problem identified was the inadequate training, skill, and general education of many rural people. Program projection was an extension activity whereby a committee of farm, home, business, and civic leaders -- with the help of extension agents -- studied the county situation. More than 5,000 people participated.13

In 1975, some 8,882 household heads, representing a cross section of the state's population, took part in an extension-sponsored survey designed to determine attitudes toward such issues as health, jobs, agriculture, recreation, housing, land use, environment, law enforcement, education, transportation, citizen involvement, and community satisfaction. It was believed the survey would be useful to extension as well as to a number of agencies in the area of public policy and planning.14

Some 112,000 North Carolinians returned questionnaires as part of the North Carolina 2000 plan, carried out in 1981 and 1982. This governor's commission found that agriculture would remain a prominent feature of the state's life and economy at the end of the century. But it would encompass more than just crop and livestock marketing and production. Agriculture would be access to capital, inheritance taxes, exports, air and water pollution, hazardous waste disposal, soil erosion, energy conservation, land use regulations, information net­works, and computers.15

Two special study-advisory committees gave attention to the extension organization and its activities. The first was in 1956-57. It came about because of concern over the governor's lack of appreciation for the work of the organization.

The school of agriculture administration was convinced that Governor Luther Hodges's statements critical of extension and his lack of understanding of the organization were beginning to show themselves in the reluctance of the General Assembly to appropriate salary increases and other funds for extension. It appeared that the time had come to have some kind of a reaffirmation by the public to "handle something we might not be able to handle ourselves with the Governor."16

On August 16, 1956, Dean Colvard addressed a letter to C.H. Bostian, North Carolina State College chancellor, and William Friday, acting president of the University of North Carolina. In this letter he requested a study by a citizen committee that would look at the programs, organization, and operating policies and procedures of extension and its relationship to other organizations. With the con­currence of Governor Hodges, President Friday appointed a nine­member committee. The committee elected Archie K. Davis, chairman of the board of Wachovia Bank and Trust Company, as the chairman.

The committee's report, made public in June, 1957, contained some far-reaching and controversial recommendations, including the proposed consolidation of county programs under the supervision of a county chairman. The committee called for some reorganization at the state level, some changes in relationships to county governments, more detailed job descriptions, and attention to salary schedules.
A similar citizens' committee, studying the same agency, came into being in 1978, instituted and appointed by North Carolina State University Chancellor Joab Thomas. Paul Leagans, retired professor from Cornell University and one-time North Carolina extension agent and specialist, chaired the 10-member committee.

In its 1979 report, the committee said extension would need better­trained and better-compensated workers in the future. Each worker would have to reach more people and reach them faster and more effectively through sound teaching methods and communications technology. Extension should also continue its strong thrust in agriculture, put more emphasis on forestry, expand the clientele for its home economics and 4-H programs, and phase out or revamp its community resource development program.17

In 1961 the extension service embarked on developing a series of long-range program plans, usually once every five years. The first one was titled "1.6 in '66," reflecting an income goal of $1.6 billion for the farmers of the state by 1966. Other programs in the series were "Target 2" in 1966, "Impact '76" in 1972, "4-Sight" in 1977, and "People's Plan 87" in 1983.18 Between 9,000 and 10,000 citizens of the state were involved in planning some of the earlier extension programs. In 1983 about twice this number of people were involved.

The experiment station went through detailed planning processes in the 1960s and 1970s. In 1962, 13 internal committees looked at programs and relationships with other groups and agencies.19 In the mid-1970s, internal committees, with assistance from representatives of the Cooperative State Research Service in the U.S. Department of Agriculture, analyzed research needs.

The school had a prominent part in the development of agricultural programs by what came to be known as the North Carolina Board of Farm Organizations and Agricul tural Agencies. On November 6, 1947, a meeting was held in the office of Governor R. Gregg Cherry to promote crop diversification and particularly to give attention to use of land expected to be made available by reductions in tobacco and peanut acreage. Some possibilities discussed at the meeting included increases in livestock and poultry, corn, cotton, soybeans, small grain, and pastures.

From this meeting a committee was developed, chaired by J.H. Hilton, which produced a program unveiled to the public in 1948. It promoted increases in the above-mentioned activities as well as improved production practices.20

Taking a broader look at rural problems was the Challenge program, unveiled in January, 1952. It called for an increased per capita income, greater security, improved educational opportunities, finer spiritual values, stronger community life, and more dignity and contentment in country living.21 Under the umbrella of this program a team of extension specialists helped county groups develop county Challenge programs.

At the request of Governor Terry Sanford, the board in 1961 ieveloped the Agricultural Opportunities Program.22 Its objectives were to increase farm income, to develop marketing and processing facilities and services, and to promote education for family and com­munity development.

It was hoped that each agency or organization would develop its own program under the Agricultural Opportunities umbrella. The extension "1.6 in '66" program and the 1962 experiment station long-range plan were a part of this effort.

Four Big Buildings

Postwar capital improvements came as a big chunk, thanks in large measure to W. Kerr Scott -- alumnus, county agent, extension specialist, state Grange master, commissioner of agriculture, governor from 1949 to 1953, and later U.S. senator.

A surplus had built up in the state treasury during the war years, while the building program at state institutions had languished. At the institutions of higher learning an army of veterans were arriving to catch up on their schooling and take advantage of the G.I. Bill.

Governor Scott; his longtime colleague D.S. Coltrane, director of the budget in the Scott administration; and the members of the General Assembly looked with special favor on the School of Agriculture and Forestry at State College. Funds were made available for four new buildings to be placed where veteran student housing had stood. They would more than double the space available for the schoo1.23

Scott Hall was the first one finished. Members of the Poultry Department moved into the building in July, 1952. Cost of the 30,600 square foot building and its equipment was around $420,000. It contained offices, laboratories, and classrooms. It was named for W. Kerr Scott's father, Robert W. Scott, longtime member of the state Board of Agriculture, who was given the principal credit for the legislative appropriation to construct Patterson Hall when he was a member of the General Assembly in 1903.

Williams Hall was completed in August, 1952. Built and equipped at a cost of $1,003,054, it was named in honor of C.B. Williams, head of the Department of Agronomy, director of the Agricultural Experiment Station, and first dean of the School of Agriculture. The four floors contained approximately 81,000 square feet of space. Seven teaching spaces and 83 offices occupied most of the area. A headhouse and four greenhouses were built nearby.

Gardner Hall, completed at almost the same time as Williams Hall, was the largest of the four. Its four floors contained some 90,000 square feet of space plus six greenhouses. Cost was $1,050,387. The building housed the five units of the recently formed Division of Biological Sciences and was named for State College graduate and governor O. Max Gardner.

Kilgore Hall was completed in 1953. The 51,000 square feet of floor space was equally divided between the Department of Horticulture and the recently formed School of Forestry. It was built at a cost of $850,000. Honored with the name was Benjamin W. Kilgore, director of both the research station and the extension service and dean of the school. In the same package the horticulturists received a headhouse, a propagating house, and two greenhouses.

Other Facilities

It would be another 10 years before a sizable building project would come about for agriculture.24 Completed in 1962 was the Reproductive Physiology Research Laboratory. In 1963 came an addition to Polk Hall that essentially doubled the space in this 1926 building.

An addition to Gardner Hall was completed in 1967. With almost $2 million in appropriations from the General Assembly and from outside funding sources, the addition almost doubled the space available for the expanding biological sciences. A second addition was completed in 1979. This section was named Bostian Hall, in honor of the longtime agricultural teacher, school administrator, and chancellor.

The first $2 million building for the School of Agriculture and Life Sciences was the food science building completed in 1967. An additional $1,500,000 went into equipping this first home for the relatively new Food Science Department. The name of the building honored longtime administrator I.O. Schaub.

Also in 1967, construction got under way on the $2,500,000 North Carolina State University unit of the Southeastern Plant Environment Laboratory. The North Carolina State unit, which came to be known as the Phytotron, served as a companion unit to a similar research facility built at Duke University at the same time.

The third unit of the Weaver Laboratories was completed in 1970. Construction on the complex to house the Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering started in 1960. The 95,000 square foot complex was named in honor of David S. Weaver who established the department in 1940 and later served as director of the Agricultural Extension Service.

The third and final unit of the Roy S. Dearstyne Avian Health Center, named for the longtime head of the Poultry Science Department, was completed in 1969. The Grinnells Animal Health Laboratory, honoring dairy researcher and veterinarian C.D. Grinnells, was completed in 1972. Additions were made to Scott Hall in 1969 and Ricks Hall in 1974. The 1983 General Assembly appropriated funds for an addition to Williams Hall.

Private funds were used to develop the M.E. Gardner Arboretum on the campus just south of Patterson Hall (1972), while another arboretum was developed on the Method Road Horticultural Farm in the late 1970s and early 1980s.

To the school's farm acreage was added the 1,000-acre Finley farm south of Raleigh in the early 1960s and the 422-acre Randleigh farm in 1967. In the 1980s the forage-animal metabolism complex was being constructed in stages on the "old animal husbandry" farm west of Interstate 40, and new dairy facilities were constructed on the Finley farm to replace those turned over to the new School of Veterinary Medicine near the State Fairgrounds. Also on the Finley farm, the poultry research complex was completed in 1981. During the late 1970s and early 1980s, greenhouses and other facilities were constructed near the Raleigh beltline in what was known as the Method Road complex.

Outside the school, leaders were honored by place-names. In 1968 the swine building at the North Carolina State Fair was named the Kelley Building, honoring Jack Kelley who served extension from 1939 to 1964.

In 1970 the nine-story chemistry building was named Dabney Hall for Charles W. Dabney, second director of the Agricultural Experiment Station and author of the bill establishing North Carolina State University. That same year the six-story general laboratories building, headquarters of the School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, was named Cox Hall in honor of Gertrude Cox, who led the university to international distinction in statistics.

The name of Jane S. McKimmon, first attached to married student housing, was placed on the continuing education center in 1976. Clarence Poe, longtime trustee and chairman of the agricultural committee of the board of trustees, was memorialized in 1970 when his name was given to the new School of Education building.

Research Stations

An expanding research program needed more land. It came in abundance -- all across the state -- especially between 1947 and 1954.25 The Horticultural Crops Research Station at Castle Hayne was started on 49 acres purchased in 1947. Later 10 acres were added and some additional land was rented.

Many of the operations that developed into research stations started on rented land.

The Upper Piedmont Research Station was started on 60 acres of leased land near Rural Hall in 1948. In 1962 the station was moved to Chinqua-Penn Plantation on part of a large tract of land given to the university by the Penn family.

The Lower Coastal Plain Tobacco Research Station was established on rented land near Greenville in 1948. It was moved to a site near Kinston in 1965.

The Border Belt Tobacco Research Station was also first operated on rented land, beginning with the 1949 crop year. In 1957 the station was relocated on a permanent site near Whiteville.

The Mountain Horticultural Crops Research Station likewise started on leased land in 1949. It was moved to a permanent site near Fletcher in 1959 amid some controversy. Extension employees claimed the station had been purchased with federal funds that had been appropriated for their salary increases. There was some truth to the charge. Some $200,000 of new federal money for salary increases had been allotted to the extension service in North Carolina. Governor Luther H. Hodges, a great promoter of industrial expansion, had become very much interested in food processing and the expansion of that industry in the state. The Gerber Baby Food Company was considering several sites, among them Henderson County. Governor Hodges pledged to the Gerber executives that if they would locate in North Carolina he would see to it that a horticultural research station would be built nearby.

Not being enthusiastic about increasing the total appropriation for agriculture, Governor Hodges obtained the money to establish the research station by having the state budget division switch funds. Some of extension's state money was used to build the station, and the new federal money replaced in the state budget the extension funds that were used to establish the research station.

Harley Blackwell, who became superintendent at the station four years later (1963), recalled in 1979 that he was "still getting vibrations" on Governor Hodges's use of extension funds to establish the station.26

The Coastal Plain Vegetable Research Station was established near Faison in 1949. In 1970 the Horticultural Crops Research Station at Clinton was established, closing out and consolidating the work at Faison and the Coastal Plain Research Station established near Willard in 1905.

The Sandhills Research Station, established in 1940, was relocated near Jackson Springs in 1951, primarily to permit an expansion of the peach breeding program.

A special farm for peanut research had been established adjacent to the Upper Coastal Plain Research Station at Rocky Mount in 1937.
In 1952 the Peanut Belt Research Station was established near Lewiston.

The Central Crops Research Station, 12 miles east of Raleigh on Highway 70 near Clayton, was established in 1953, and the McCullers Station was closed out at that time. Much of the livestock, poultry, and forage research was done on the several tracts of university farms around Raleigh, and the Central Crops Research Station served a similar function by providing research land for field crops near the campus.

Another of the older stations was closed out in 1954 -- the Piedmont Test Farm near Statesville. The work there was moved to the new Piedmont Research Station near Salisbury. This station, with 1,061 acres, became the largest in the system.

Called test farms at first, from the 1920s on several titles were applied to the outlying research locations. The 1954 School of Agriculture annual report listed six separate designations for the 16 locations -- test farm, research farm, experiment station, station, substation, and laboratory. In 1955 the units were officially named research stations, and in the North Carolina Department of Agriculture the Division of Test Farms became known as the Division of Research Stations.

Peace in the Family

There is probably no other state in which the activities of the agricultural college and the state department of agriculture are more closely entwined than in North Carolina. In fact, the North Carolina Department of Agriculture has been a constant partner with the School of Agriculture from the beginning of both organizations. LL. Polk was a crusader for the establishment of North Carolina State College and served as the first commissioner of agriculture beginning with the creation of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture in 1877. Although some political stresses have arisen,especially in the early years, despite conflicting laws governing the two organizations, and surely despite some conflicts in personalities, a workable division of responsibilities has emerged.

There is considerable evidence that Dean Schaub and Agricultural Commissioner Kerr Scott had difficulties over the administration and operation of the outlying stations in the late 1930s and perhaps into the early 1940s. There is evidence of sensitivity based primarily on the fact that a few of the researchers felt that they could not get the superintendents to exercise sufficient care in carrying out the research projects.

A.O. Shaw, head of the Department of Animal Industry from 1942 to 1944, recalled a problem he had during a field day at the station at Willard. "We started quite a well designed experiment on grazing and I went down to the field day, and they had staked it all off and taken our cattle off it and were using it for a parking lot."27

There was cause for concern in the 1950s when marketing work was expanding and both the college and department were attempting to carve out for themselves a role in this area. Also, there was considerable concern within the leadership of the extension service when funds were allocated to the state Department of Agriculture to employ regional agronomists in 1979. These new positions were viewed as essentially extension-type activities.

I.O. Schaub, who had witnessesd much of the 75-year history of the organizations, placed the blame squarely on the laws regulating them:

... by law the Board of Agriculture was charged with the duty of carrying on certain types of research. Unfortunately the College was also by law charged with similar responsibility and in the same field. These conflicting and duplicating laws are still on the books (1953) and human nature being what it is, the old wars will be resumed at some future date unless some subsequent Legislature repeals some of the old acts and more clearly defines the functions of the two agencies.

Many people and the press in the past have been extremely critical of the conflicts and jealousies between the staff members of the two agencies and to place the whole blame on the people trying to administer the programs. The writer holds no brief for or against those who have been participants in previous controversies, but he does submit that the primary cause of previous conflicts rests squarely on the Legislatures that passed the acts governing the two agencies.28

Much credit for the success of the joint venture must go to the comissioners of agriculture and their long tenure. During the era of most dramatic changes in farming, which began about 1940, only three commissioners of agriculture have been in office -- W. Kerr Scott, from 1937 to 1949; L.Y. Ballentine, from 1949 to 1964; and James A. Graham from 1964.

Credit must also go to Cecil Thomas, who served as director of research stations in the Department of Agriculture from 1953 to 1972 and to Pat Kelley, director after 1972.

With responsibilities for enforcement of state laws related to agriculture, the North Carolina Department of Agriculture has relied upon the Agricultural Research Service of the School of Agriculture for many of its standards for inspection and enforcement and for the other services it renders. The Department of Agriculture has collected "Nickels for Know-How" funds for the Agricultural Foundation at the university without charge.

A unique feature of the total operation is the ownership and management of the research stations across the state. In 1983 nine of the stations were owned by the State Department of Agriculture and six of them (in addition to the university farms) were owned by North Carolina State University. Owned by the Department of Agriculture were those at Whiteville, Clinton, Waynesville, Oxford, Lewiston, Salisbury, Plymouth, Rocky Mount, and Laurel Springs. University­owned stations were at Clayton, Castle Hayne, Kinston, Fletcher, Jackson Springs, and Reidsville.

The superintendent and other employees of each station (regardless of ownership) were employees of the state Department of Agriculture and under the supervision of the director of the Division of Research Stations. Allocation of land and facilities on the station was made jointly by research administrators at the university and the station superintendents. Research and extension personnel were located at several of the stations. Experiment station personnel provided technical leadership for all projects on all stations.
One indication of the successful cooperation of these two agricultural agencies was revealed in interviews with research station superintendents. They consistently asserted that ownership of the station created no problems in executing research projects.

A history cannot overlook the weaknesses, the failures, the frailty of people. It must report the good and also the bad. Judgments must be made. In this case, the leadership must be saluted for making an imperfect arrangement work to the benefit of those the arrangement was designed to serve.


  1. "Ag Activities Merged Under One Dean,"Agriculture Astride the Century. 1950-51 Annual Report, School of Agriculture, p. 6. Accounts of personnel and facilities in this chapter taken primarily from annual reports for the period covered and interviews.
  2. In semiretirement Schaub handled the foreign visitor program for two years, serving as programmer and host to the growing number of representatives of foreign countries coming to North Carolina to study the school's program. He wrote short histories of both the extension service (published in 1953) and the experiment station (published in 1955). Following these activities, "Dean Schaub," as he was so affectionately known, remained a familiar figure on the campus, collecting materials and organizing them into what became the North Carolina State University Archives. "Era Ends for State," an Extension News headline proclaimed on his death in 1971 -- 71 years after his graduation from the A&M College in 1900 at the age of 19.
  3. C. H. Bostian interview, January 19, 1979.
  4. R. W. Shoffner interview, March 17,1979.
  5. For detailed accounts of new programs and activities mentioned in this chapter, along with budgets and funding sources, see chapter 14.
  6. Hilton served as president of Iowa State University, his alma mater, until his retirement in 1965. He then returned to North Carolina as executive director of the Smith-Reynolds Foundation in Winston-Salem for five years.
  7. Later Cummings returned to the university and served as the university­wide dean for research.
  8. In 1966 Colvard returned to his native state as the first chancellor of the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. Three important projects following his retirement in 1978 were writing the story of racial integration in the universities in Mississippi (Mixed Emotions, Danville, Ill.: The Interstate Printers and Publishers, Inc., 1985); serving as the first chairman of the board of directors of the North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics; and conducting 64 oral interviews that constituted a major portion of the research for this book.
  9. James served as vice-president for the university system until his death in 1973.
  10. To better describe the broadening programs of the forestry school, the name of the School of Forestry was changed in 1968 to the School of Forest Resources.
  11. "Name Changed to Meet Challenge of Future," 1963 Annual Report. School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, p. 2.
  12. L.D. Baver interview, November 23, 1978.
  13. "Program Projection Covers the State," 1956 Annual Report. School of Agriculture, p. 26.
  14. This 1975 study was one of several in the mid-1970s conducted by sociolo­gist James R. Christensen, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, North Carolina State University.
  15. "Agriculture Gets Attention in North Carolina 2000 Report," 1982 Annual Report. School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, pp. 2-3.
  16. Extension Service Advisory Committee. A Report on the Programs, Organization, Management of the Agricultural Extension Seroice, N.C. Agricultural Extension Service, 1957, 142 pp.
  17. Chancellor's Commitee on Role Projection and the Response by the Extension Service. Change, Technology and Accountability: A Blueprint for the Future of the North Carolina Agricultural Extension Seroice. N.C. Agricultural Extension Service, 1980, 104 pp.
  18. 1.6 in '66, A Working Document, 1963, 200 pp.; Target 2, A Working Document, 1966,288 pp.; Impact '76, A Working Document, 1972,344 pp.; 4-Sight, A Working Document, 1977,236 pp.; People's Plan 87, A Working Document, 1983, 224 pp. All published by N.C. Agricultural Extension Service.
  19. A Ten-Year Projection for Agricultural Research in North Carolina. N.C. Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin No. 422,1963, 114 pp.
  20. A Farm Program for North Carolina. N.C. Agricultural Extension Service, 1948, (no number), 44 pp. Faculty and farm leaders participating in the program included J. H. Hilton, I.O. Schaub, L.D. Baver, Roy Dearstyne, D.W. Colvard, John Arey, R.W. Cummings, Clarence Poe, Harry Caldwell, Thomas J. Pearsall, A.C. Edwards, W. Kerr Scott, E.B. Garrett, A.L. Teachey, J. Milton Mangum, M.G. Mann, W.P. Hedrick, J.H. Vaughn, C.W. Tilson, E.Y. Floyd, L.L. Ray, A.G. Lytle, J.B. Slack, R. Flake Shaw, W.W. Eagles, Paul Kelly, W.C. Guthrie, Willard L. Dowell, Fred W. Greene, Warren Johnson, and Judson H. Bount.
  21. The North Carolina Board of Farm Organizations and Agricultural Agencies. North Carolina Accepts The Challenge Through A United Agricultural Program, 1952, 76 pp.
  22. The North Carolina Board of Farm Organizations and Agricultural Agencies. Expanding and Developing Agricultural Opportunities in North Carolina, 1962, 16 pp.
  23. "New Ag Campus Nears Completion," North Carolina Astride the Cen­tury. 1950-51 annual report, School of Agriculture, p. 5; "Our New Buildings," Forward Together. 1951-54 annual report, School of Agriculture, p. 39; For photographic reports of the four buildings, see Research and Farming -- autumn, 1952, Scott Hall; winter and spring, 1953, Williams Hall; summer and autumn, 1953, Gardner Hall; winter and spring, 1954, Kilgore Hall; all pp. 8-9.
  24. For buildings completed between 1963 and 1983, see introductory sections of the school annual report for the specific years.
  25. Historical sketches of each research station are found in individual leaflets on the station, available from the Division of Research Stations, N.C. Department of Agriculture.
  26. Harley Blackwell interview, October 30, 1979. In addition to Blackwell, other long-tenured superintendents and their locations in 1970 included: Wallace Dickens, Border Belt Tobacco, Whiteville; W.C. Allsbrook, Central Crops, Clayton; Jesse Sumner, Coastal Plain, Willard; F.E. Cumbo, Coastal Plain Vegetable, Faison; J.M. Jenkins, Jr., Horticultural Crops, Castle Hayne; Sanford Barnes, Lower Coastal Plain Tobacco, Kinston; J.R. Edwards, Mountain, Waynesville; Billy Ayscue, Oxford Tobacco, Oxford; Wallace Baker, Peanut Belt, Lewiston; Clyde McSwain, Piedmont, Salisbury; Clarence Black, Sandhills, Jackson Springs; John Smith, Tidewater, Plymouth; Dana Tugman, Upper Mountain, Laurel Springs; Howell Gentry, Upper Piedmont, Reidsville.
  27. A.O. Shaw interview, September 14, 1981.
  28. Schaub, I.O. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, The First 60 Years, N.C. Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin No. 390, 1955, pp. 108-09.

College of Agriculture and Life Sciences teaching, research, extension