A revised curriculum. Science, business, and technology. Medical technology. Better graduate study. The Agricultural Institute. Short course expansion. Financial help. The opportunities. Clubs and teams.
Returning World War II veterans found a revised curriculum awaiting them, beginning in the fall of 1946. The new programs were designed to give the student less training in general agriculture but more in the social sciences and humanities. Greater flexibility was added in that a student could choose more "free electives."
In addition to the general curriculum in agriculture, a specialized curriculum, particularly designed for students contemplating graduate work, gave more emphasis to the scientific aspects of agriculture. Also, there were special curricula for students majoring in dairy manufacturing, forestry, landscape architecture, and wildlife conservation and management.
The returning veterans were much better students than most members of the faculty had expected. They played poker and used other skills they had acquired in the military, but instead of simply taking advantage of the G.I. Bill, they were mature and serious-minded. Many were married and with their families found housing in Trailwood, Westhaven, and Vetville.1
In announcing the new program, Dean L.D. Baver said the revisions were designed to improve the quality of training offered and to advance the School of Agriculture and North Carolina State College to a place of national leadership in agricultural education.2
In 1949 the program in landscape architecture was moved to the new School of Design, and a change from the semester to the quarter system in 1954 necessitated some course rearrangement. But these 1946 revisions were the basis for the instructional program for the next 12 years.
It is not possible to assess the success of the curriculum in moving the school into national prominence, as envisioned by Baver. What is clear is that the program offered would not forever draw in the students necessary for a viable instructional program. Undergraduate enrollment in the school held between 600 and 700 through the early years of the 1950s and advanced above 800 for the latter years of the decade. Graduate enrollment increased each year but the decreasing number of freshmen showed that something was wrong. In the fall of 1958 only 89 freshmen enrolled in the agricultural program.
The opportunities for employment of agricultural graduates were there. A 1955 report stated that agriculture -- once just called farming --now embraced eight major fields with over 500 occupations that could employ 15,000 new college graduates each year. But the nation's land-grant colleges were graduating only 8,500 a year. The eight areas and number of graduates needed were:
Farming -- crops, livestock, fruits, vegetables -- 2,000
Research -- production, marketing, processing -- 1,000
Industry -- meat, dairy, poultry, feed, fertilizer -- 3,000
Business -- grading, marketing, credit, cooperatives -- 3,000
Education -- college, extension teaching, secondary -- 3,000
Communications -- writing, reporting, radio, TV -- 500
Conservation -- soil, water, range, forest, wildlife -- 1,000
Services -- inspection, regulation, quarantine -- 1,5003
The school's 1955 annual report pointed out that in North Carolina there was "desperate need for college trained people to farm their own land and for well schooled specialists in the fertilizer, dairying, feed, insecticides, farm implements and distributing industries." For some time the school administrators had been discussing possible changes in the curriculum. Many high school graduates were perceiving training in agriculture as offering only two alternatives -- preparation for work in a government agency or a return to the farm. To remedy this false image, the program planners turned to an annual open house; started in 1959, that would give the school a chance to picture the great depth and broad dimension of the school's programs.4 A number of promotional techniques were designed to acquaint high school counselors with the school.
To modify the curriculum, school administrators turned to the then-popular agribusiness concept.
In 1955 there were approximately eight million persons working on U.S. farms. Six million more were producing for and serving farmers, and another 10 million persons were processing and distributing farm products. In total, 24 million of the nation's 62 million labor force were employed in agriculture and related industries.5 Would not a lot of college graduates be needed for this large agriculture industry?
In studying the kinds of training to be given young persons in the School of Agriculture, it was agreed that the curriculum should be divided into three broad areas -- agricultural science, agricultural business, and agricultural technology:
The curriculum in Agricultural Science places much greater emphasis upon science and its application to agriculture. It provides excellent training for employment opportunities including research for public institutions and industry.
Agricultural Business trains young men in business and agriculture. The program brings into existence a new combination of business, science and agriculture. Men in this curriculum are trained to work in agricultural industries closely related to farming. There is a great demand for this unique combination of training in science, business and technical agriculture.
Agricultural Technology emphasizes applied science and technology. In this curriculum men are trained in agricultural production and in the technical processes involved in agricultural industry.6
Under these three programs, B.S. degrees would include 34 majors offered by 15 departments.
This new concept of instruction served the school well. Not all of the programs developed, but 10 years later, (in 1968) the undergraduate program included 30 majors in 18 different areas of specialization. By the 1980s the applied and commodity-type departments had concentrated on the science and technology tracks. The basic disciplines, such as botany and zoology, had concentrated on the science track. The business track had been concentrated in agricultural economics. Agricultural economics dropped the technology track, but double majors between one of the commodity departments (such as poultry science) and agricultural economics became popular.
New programs were added as the need arose and to meet the changing needs or interests of the students. In 1963 two new undergraduate programs were put into operation -- biological sciences and an international option.7 The program in biological sciences provided undergraduate training for several of the basic departments that did not have an undergraduate curriculum. It was especially designed for students preparing for graduate study and for those planning educational careers in biology. The international option was available within all curricula in the school. This option included intensive study of a foreign language and was designed to promote understanding of international relationships and the culture of other societies.
Further capitalizing on high interest in a particular area, a curriculum in conservation was developed in 1967.8 The joint program between Agriculture and Life Sciences and the School of Forest Resources combined courses in forestry, wildlife management, and soil science. It was designed to develop personnel who could make sound judgments in conserving both renewable and nonrenewable resources and in planning and directing resource management and use.
Revisions and groupings of course offerings in entomology, plant pathology, and crop science in 1972 resulted in a pest management curriculum for baccalaureate students. Four years later the Department of Horticultural Science joined the other three in a revised pest management program.9 The curriculum came in response to agribusiness needs for broadly-educated students and to increased attention being given to the "management" philosophy of pest control.
By 1981 computers were being used on the farm. To meet this development, two computer courses were offered in the Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, one for four-year students and one for two-year students.10 The courses were built around the use of micro-computers -- the type being used on farms and in small businesses.
A special program for "honors" students was started in 1959.11 Juniors and seniors whose overall average was B or better were invited to attend a special seminar. The following year, freshmen and sophomores were added to the program. In 1963 a special honors research course was approved, and those students eligible for this course carried out research projects under the direction of selected faculty members. By 1976 some 200 students were participating each year in the seminar and another 125 in the honors research program. Five years later another dimension was added -- a teaching option. In 1981 about one-fourth of the students in the honors program selected the teaching option, in which a student was paired with a top professor and served as the professor's teaching assistant.
An experimental undergraduate program for individualized study came along in 1971 in response to the demand by students that they have more freedom to choose their courses of study.12 Under this program the student would develop his or her own program, meeting the minimum course requirements for the university and for the school. The program did not have large numbers but did meet the needs of the mature or independent student desiring a course program in depth or breadth. One problem was that the program often did not the needs of prospective employers, who were looking for graduates with more in-depth training in a particular area.
More popular was an external learning experience developed to ovide the student an opportunity to get working experience while
carryying out an academic program.13 Under the arrangement, students received degree credit for closely supervised off-campus experiance related to their majors. The program grew from 24 students in 1977-78 to 51 in 1980. In a related Cooperative Education Program, after the freshman year a student w:orked one semester and attended the universityy one semester, following an alternating schedule until the degree was completed.
A shortage of doctors was proclaimed about 1970, particularly by the press, supporters of a new medical school at East Carolina University, and new residents in fast-growing areas like the Research Triangle 'who had difficulty finding doctors who would accept them as piatients. Also, there was a rapidly increasing demand for medical personnel other than doctors. It was estimated that 90,000 medical technologists would be required in the U.S. during the 1970s.14
In 1969 a joint medical technology program was developed in coperation with the School of Medicine at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. In that program, administered through the Department of Zoology at North Carolina State University, the student would spend three years on the NCSU campus with courses in zoology, humanities, and the social, physical, and biological sciences, The fourth year would be taken in residence at an approved hospital.
A second program consisted of a four-year college curriculum wtith a B.S. in zoology, followed by a year of training in a hospital laboratory school.
By the end of the 1970s the School of Agriculture and Life Sciences had become a popular place for premedical and predental ttaining. Of 98 NCSU students applying to medical colleges in 1978, 54 were accepted by medical schools. With an acceptance rate of about 50 percent over several years, NCSU ranked well above the national average of about 33 percent. Of the 54 students accepted from NCSU, 36 were enrolled in curricula in the School of Agriculture and Life Sciences.
By 1973, of all the students in the£reshman through senior classes who had declared their curriculum goal, 228 had declared preveterinary medicine as their major area of interest.15 Unfortunately, not nearly all of them would find a spot at which they could study to fulfill their aspirations. In 1975, of 97 North Carolina students from the several program areas and universities providing preveterinary instruction and declared eligible to attend veterinary school by a special state-level screening committee, only 28 were admitted to veterinary schools. Five were admitted to the University of Oklahoma, 4 to Ohio State, 10 to the University of Georgia, 6 to Auburn, and 3 to Tuskegee Institute. Statistics such as these helped persuade the North Carolina General Assembly that there was a genuine need for a school of veterinary medicine in the state.
New programs plus recruitment activities and increased interest in the natural sciences enabled the school to move forward rapidly in its instructional programs. From a low of 686 students in 1963-64, enrollment grew steadily until a peak of 2,900 four-year students was reached in 1975-76.16
Ceilings imposed on student growth for the university because of space limitations in 1976 reduced the number of students majoring in agriculture. Particularly affected was the number of transfer students; only 70 could be admitted that year compared to 200 the year before.
Two noticeable changes in the student population over the years were the increasing percentage enrolling from urban areas and the rapid increase in female students -- up to 45 percent of the students by 1980. Particularly popular with both urban and female students were the programs in food and horticultural sciences.
A survey of the 1983 entering freshmen indicated that the parents of about one-fourth of the students were involved in agriculture in some way.17 Parents continued as the person(s) most influencing students' decision to attend NCSU (43%); friends remained in second place (28%). Only about 7 percent of the freshmen had been influenced to attend NCSU by faculty or staff, but the reputation of the School of Agriculture and Life Sciences continued as the second most often named reason (20%) for attending NCSU. Curricula offered remained the major factor for selecting NCSU (57%). The 1983 freshman class in the School of Agriculture and Life Sciences represented 95 of North Carolina's 100 counties and 25 other states.
Agricultural graduates of the 1930s almost always had to go outside the southern region to obtain graduate training in the agricultural sciences. Southern agricultural schools offered a limited number of master's programs but not the doctorate.
In 1941, the peak prewar year, the School of Agriculture and Forestry granted 22 master's degrees.
'That same year the college announced with considerable fanfare the inauguration of its first doctoral program following consolidation of the university.18 It was also the first doctoral program in agronomy in the South. The new program would "permit Southerners to earn the Doctor of Philosophy degree in this important field without having to attend a northern or western school where agricultural practices differ from this section's."
In 1943 doctoral programs were introduced in agricultural economics, entomology, plant pathology, and rural sociology.19 Additional doctoral programs were introduced in animal industry and experimental statistics in 1947; botany (in the fields of physiology and ecology) and zoology (in the fields of ecology and wildlife) in 1951; genetics in 1953; agricultural engineering in 1957; bacteriology, food science, and physiology in 1963; biochemistry and microbiology in 1965; adult education in 1966; nutrition in 1969; horticultural science in 1970; and toxicology in 1979.
As the departmental designations and titles changed over the years, some graduate program designations changed to coincide with the offering departments.
Until 1948 the doctorate programs at North Carolina State College were offered in cooperation with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill under supervision of the Graduate School of the Consolidated University of North Carolina. Recipients traveled to Chapel Hill and received their degrees during commencement exercises there.
The first to receive the Ph.D. degree in Raleigh (1948) was David Mason, who started his doctoral program in soil physics and statistics under the direction of L.D. Baver at Ohio State. Mason was first by virtue of luck of the alphabet. His name came before Canadian Allen Paull, who received the degree in statistics; North Carolinian Thomas Quay, in zoology; and Australian Maurice Rothberg, in rural sociology.
The rapid development of graduate programs through the 1960s gave the school a position of leadership in graduate education in the South, and a 1979 study revealed a high national ranking.20 That year the school granted 212 master's degrees in agriculture, exceeded only by 266 at Texas A&M and 216 at Wisconsin. In doctorates, with 66 awarded, the school ranked sixth in the nation that year, behind Cornell with 124, Wisconsin with 116, Michigan State with 76, Texas A&M with 74, and Purdue with 73.
By 1956 school administrators were promoting a two-year program in agriculture. The Advisory Council and school administrators visited four midwestern universities that year, and they particularly talked about this idea after visiting Michigan State University, where such a program had been successful over a number of years.
Support for the idea was generated by the tour, but obtaining the money from the General Assembly was a major problem. The effort failed in 1957 but succeeded in 1959.
The program was opposed in various quarters, particularly on the campus where some members of the faculty believed the offering of a nondegree program was inappropriate for or beneath the dignity of a great university. Some feared it would take students away from the four-year program.21
Considerable effort was made to convey the notion that the Agricultural Institute was an addition to and not a substitute for the regular degree-granting program of the school. Also promoted was the idea that the instruction offered would be designed to train men and women for technical jobs in agriculture that required education beyond the high school level but not necessarily four years of college.22
The college administration provisionally accepted the proposal with the stipulation that enrollment would be limited to 300 students.
It was realized that such a program would not automatically succeed (similar programs had failed elsewhere). Soon after his selection to head the program, Homer Folks visited a number of similar programs at other institutions. The attempt was made to incorporate into the new program the strengths observed in other states and to avoid any weaknesses found.
When the first class of 95 arrived on campus in the fall of 1960 there were five programs of instruction: farm equipment sales and service, general agriculture, livestock management and technology, poultry technology, and pest control.
Two new programs -- field crops technology and ornamental crops technology -- were offered in 1961. After several years the poultry technology program was dropped because of lack of participation. By 1970 new programs had been added in soil technology and turfgrass management. A program in food processing, distribution, and service was begun in 1974.
From that class of 95 -- representing 48 North Carolina counties, five other states, and one foreign country -- enrollment climbed steadily, reaching a peak of 418 in the fall of 1980. In line with the general enrollment decline, in 1983 some 344 students were enrolled in the institute. By the end of the 1983-84 year, a total of 2,360 students had graduated from the program.23
When the program was developed it was envisioned that it would appeal to young people who wished to become farmers and to others who liked agriculture but did not desire to or would not have the opportunity to operate a farm of their own. Included would be work in farm service organizations such as farm machinery distributors, and feed mills. In the earlier years more than half of the institute graduates went into farming on their own. A survey of the 137 1980 graduates, on the 20th anniversary of the program, revealed that 45 percent of them went into farming and farm management and 17 percent chose agribusiness careers. Only 14 percent went into nonagricultural jobs.
In 1980 the institute program received the first annual Award for Excellence in Agricultural Technology presented by the National Association of State Departments of Agriculture and R.J. Reynolds Industries, Ine.
Following a lull during the war, the short course and conference program was rejuvenated in 1946. Eugene Starnes moved from agricultural extension to the College Extension Division to coordinate the agricultural activities.
In announcing a new program, Dean L.D. Baver declared that special instruction would be offered "to scores of North Carolina farm boys who are not interested in studying farming practices to the extent of receiving a college degree but who need the practical uses of the many agricultural skills which will be taught by the college professors.' 24 Baver said many farm leaders had long felt the need for such a program of intensive instruction.
It was anticipated that a number of eight-week courses would be offered. One was in animal production, from January 14 to March 1, 1946. Veterans could enroll under the provisions of the "G.I. Bill of Rights." Records have not been found to document the success of this course, to determine whether it was repeated, or to indicate whether similar ones were ever offered.
In January, 1947, a four-week course in dairy production was held. By 1949 a similar course in crop production had been added. Courses started in early January, ran simultaneously for four weeks, and were sometimes called "farm production short courses. "25
Other courses offered in 1949 were Beef Production, Frozen Food Locker, Ice Cream Making, and Market Milk, each to last two weeks; and DHIA Testers, Artificial Breeding, and Farm Managers, each to last one week.
Courses and conferences less than one week in length were the Fertilizer Dealer's Short Course, Seedmen's Short Course, Dairy Manufacturing Conference, Dairy Fieldmen's Conference, Commercial Flower Grower's Short Course, Nurserymen's Short Course, State Garden School, Workshop in Freezing Preservation of Foods, and Insecticide and Fungicide Dealer's Short Course.
In 1951 the beef production course expanded to four weeks.26 The school offered 34 short courses and conferences during the 1950-51 school year with an attendance of 1,885. Eight of these were offered by the Department of Animal Industry, with some 1,200 persons attending. Included were the beef cattle conference and the dairymen's conference, both offered for the first time. Each attracted 300 or more participants.
The Short Course in Modern Farming, begun in 1953, represented a new approach to short courses for young men on the farm.27 Bankers and county agents selected young farmers in each county who were doing an outstanding job, showed a high interest in farming, and expected to make farming a lifelong occupation. Tuition and living costs for this two-week course were paid by the sponsoring bankers. Through 1983 more than 3,000 had attended this short course.
By 1955 the number of short courses and conferences had grown to 43 with 3,203 in attendance. Some 40 courses were held in 1965, and the majority of the departments were offering at least one adult education program annually to interested groups.28 However, as the years went by, commodity associations assumed cosponsorship of many of these events and in some cases took over the sponsorship from the school.
In 1964, when the cost for an in-state student to attend the university was estimated at $1,500 to $1,600 per year, almost one-third of the students in the school were coming from homes where the gross income was so low that it was necessary for the student to have some form of financial aid. Administrators were aware of the situation:
One situation which is of concern to both students and the administration and which has not been improving over the years is the matter of scholarships. In the face of both rising costs of attending college and the increase of student enrollment, there has been no noticeable increase in the number of scholarships available to students in the School of Agriculture and Life Sciences. Approximately 25 scholarships are presently available. The lack of adequate scholarship support is of deep concern to the administration.29
Efforts were being made to increase the scholarship support available. One plan that offered hope was an Endowed Scholarship Fund sponsored by the Agricultural Foundation. Under this plan friends of agriculture were encouraged to established named scholarship endowments for themselves or in memory of loved ones. A long-term goal of $500,000 was established.
At first growth was slow. In 1968 there was $34,000 in the fund; by 1972 it had grown to $191,000. On November 29, 1979, Robert N. Wood, assistant director of foundations, wrote director of academic affairs, E. W. Glazener: "The total amount of the endowments has increased by $60,818.42 during the past fiscal year to $533,682.66." The original goal had been reached.
By 1983 the Endowment Fund in the Agricultural Foundation had passed the $900,000 mark and a similar one in the Dairy Foundation contained more than $100,000. For the 1983-84 academic year some 40 percent of SALS students were receiving some type of financial aid. A total of 175 scholarships worth approximately $128,000 were awarded. Support for approximately 90 of these came from earnings on endowed scholarship funds; the remaining 85 were those granted by various individuals, businesses, and organizations.
The 1982 annual report stated that administrators of the school, while continuing efforts to seek financial assistance for needy students, were also working to increase funds for scholarships that could be awarded solely on a merit basis.
In 1960, as enrollment appeared to be picking up, a listing of potential employers was developed. It included more than 1,000 agricultural or related businesses located in North Carolina and 200 national firms. A survey of the 1960 four-year graduates indicated that 33 percent of them had gone into agricultural business and industry, 25 percent to professional and graduate schools, 15 percent to military service, 11 percent to educational or governmental service, 8 percent returned to the home farm, and 8 percent were placed in a miscellaneous category.30
A three-year study (1965, 1966, 1967) looked at the location of graduates after placement. Of the 186 four-year graduates going on to jobs, approximately 77 percent located in North Carolina, 16 percent in other southern states, and 8 percent outside the South. This study also revealed that some 80 to 85 percent of the agricultural school graduates were going to work in the broad area of agriculture or in related businesses.31
The table below shows placement data for 467 four-year graduates in 1980 and 396 graduates in 1983.
|Farming and farm management||10||7|
|Agribusiness sales, production, and management||30||21|
|Government and education||14||3|
|Graduate, professional, and further studies||35||32|
|Not available or seeking work||4||18|
Clubs and teams remained important. As new programs developed, the students organized clubs to represent their particular subject area. Twenty student clubs were active in 1983.32
Many times the clubs were singled out for special recognition. In 1970 the Agronomy Club was selected by the American Society of Agronomy as the best in the nation for that year.
As the departmental and area clubs grew stronger, emphasis shifted away from the Agricultural Club, which went out of existence about 1960. It was replaced in part by the Agricultural Council, established in 1960. The activities of the council were directed by six officers elected by the students and two representatives from each departmental club. The Agricultural Council held a monthly meeting to which all students of the school were invited.
In addition, the fraternity of Alpha Zeta continued active. Among the 59 Alpha Zeta chapters in the nation, the North Carolina chapter in 1970 was judged the best in the country.
Despite the changing needs and desires of students, judging teams continued to be popular. In 1983 the school sent out six such teams -- in livestock, poultry, soils, horses, dairy, and flowers. They competed in regional and national contests. The poultry judging team scored highest in the country in both 1976 and 1978. It was said that members of the judging teams put in as many hours as they would for a course and logged as many miles as the football team.33
The article contained a statement that could be ascribed to the total student body, their activities, and their accomplishments: "And they usually do the school proud."
NOTES TO CHAPTER 15
1. Harrell, Jack Mongan. History of Vetville. June, 1950, 266 pp., in N.C State University Archives.
2. Undated news release, L. D. Baver personal file, N.C. State University Archives.
3. Careers Ahead. National Association of Land-Grant Colleges and State Universities, 1955, 36 pp.
4. "Open House Puts School on Display," 1959 annual report, p. 6.
5. Pugh, GR., and W. L. Turner, Agriculture ... Industry's Growing Business Partner. N.C. Agricultural Extension Service, Folder No. 168, 1959, 8 pp; 1957 annual report, p. 3.
6. "New Teaching Program Gets Underway," 1958 annual report, p. 5; A New Concept of Agriculture, 6-page folder and 14-page booklet, both by same title, in N.C. State University Archives.
7. "New Programs Reflect Growth," 1963 annual report, p. 9.
8. "New Curriculum in Conservation Offered," 1967 annual report, p. 9.
9. 1972 annual report, p. 14; 1976 annual report, p. 20; 1977 annual report, p. 14.
10. "School Initiates Computer Courses," 1981 annual report, p. 14.
11. See annual reports for 1960, p. 7; 1962, p. 5; 1963, p. 8; 1971, p. 9; 1972, p. 12; 1976, p. 20; 1981, p. 12.
l2. "Experiment in Individualized Study," 1971 annual report, p. 10.
13. 1978 annual report; pp. 11-12. 1980 annual report, pp. 11-12.
14. See annual reports for 1963, p. 7; 1971, p. 12; 1978, p. 13.
15.1973 annual report, pp. 14-15; 1975 annual report, p. 19.
16. See annual reports throughout the period and quarter or semester enrollment reports in N.C. State University Archives.
17. Unpublished annual survey of freshmen, office of director of academic affairs.
18. October 19, 1941, news release, L.D. Baver personal file, N.C. State University Archives.
19. See N.C. State University catalogs and annual reports throughout the period.
20. "Advanced Degree Graduates in Agriculture and Related Areas in Land Grant Institutions by Region in 1979," internal mimeograph in office of dean of agriculture, 1 p. Also, J.E. Legates interview, October 27, 1980.
21. Later the state's community colleges added a number of two-year agricultural programs with only limited success.
22. "Agricultural Institute Organized," 1959 annual report, p. 5.
23. "Agricultural Institute Has Successful Start," 1960 annual report, p. 6; and annual reports throughout the period.
24. Undated news release, L. D. Baver personal file, N.C. State University Archives.
25. Annual reports for the period and personal conversations with faculty members involved.
26. 1950 annual report, p. 8; 1951-54 annual report, p. 34.
27. "Short Courses Extend Services," 1955 annual report, p. 7.
28. "Continuing Education," 1965 annual report, p. 12.
29. "What We Need," 1964 annual report, p. 10. See also "Scholarships Available to Ag Students," 1950 annual report, p. 7.
30. "Enrollment Up," 1960 annual report, p. 5. See other issues of the annual report for the period covered.
31. "Graduates Stay Close to Home" 1967 annual report, p. 7; and "Career Choices of Graduates, SALS, NCSU, 1982-83," processed internal report by the placement office. A placement service for the school was established and coordinated with the University Placement Center around 1960. For several years the service was done with the part-time help of a graduate student. The first full-time staff member to handle this activity was appointed in 1978.
32. Student clubs in 1983: Agricultural Institute, Agricultural Economics, Agronomy, Animal Science, Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Biochemistry, Biology, Botany, Conservation, Food Science, Horticultural Science, Medical Technology, Microbiology, National Agri-Marketing Association, Pest Management, Poultry Science, Pre-Medical/PreDental, Pre-Professional Health Society, Pre-Veterinary, and Wildlife.
33. "Judging Teams Gain Helpful Experience," 1981 annual report, p. 14.