patterson hall column

Knowledge is Power Contents: Section 1

Chapter 7:
Extension Reaches Out to the Farm

Early farmers' institute work. Varied programs. Farm demonstrations. First North Carolina demonstration.
Hudson moves to Raleigh. Boys' and Girls' club work.
Home demonstration work. Personnel and program changes.
The Smith-Lever Act. An agricultural editor.

In 1885 the General Assembly of North Carolina assigned to the Board of Agriculture the duty of forming and holding farmers' institutes at regular intervals in every county of the state. The sum of $500 annually was allocated for this purpose. Despite the limited funding, an ambitious program with the goal of holding an institute in each county every two years was set up. The goal would be reached, but it would take a long time.

Early Farmers' Institute Work

College and Experiment Station personnel participated "by invitation of the Commissioner of Agriculture." In 1890, the first full year of the college's operation, Professors Massey and Chamberlain and President Holladay participated in at least II institutes, apparently the total number held that year. Commissioner John Robinson regu­larly participated in the two-day events, and leading farmers were on the programs.1

Local citizens arranged the institutes. A committee selected the location, the dates, and the topics to be covered. It handled publicity and made the necessary arrangements on the days of the institute. A few institutes were held in the winter, but most were scheduled in July and August between layby and harvest.

For four years, beginning in 1887, a "Grand Encampment and Farmers' Institute" was held at Mt. Holly in Gaston County. Attendance records are not available, but one report states that on one day of the 1888 event there were between 700 and 800 wagons on the grounds.

There was slow but steady growth in the farmers' institute program, as indicated by the following figures:

 

Number of

Number of

Year

institutes

counties

1898

28

27

1904

58

58

1905

79

76

1906

136

91

1907

169

93

1908

234

95

1909

247

93

1910

392

96

1911

471

97

1912

502

99

In 1912, the number of institutes and attendance was as follows:

Total attendance for the year was 60, 069.

Institute attendance hit a peak in 1914 when 35,632 men attended 250 regular institutes and 33,227 women attended 240 regular institutes. Highest attendance at a single location was at the Iredell Test Farm, where approximately 1,200 men and 300 women attended institutes in 1909 and 1910.

By 1907 a farmers' institute organization or committee existed in 95 of the state's 98 counties. But Commissioner of Agriculture S.L. Patterson was not satisfied. He said in 1909 that in too many places the farmers still seemed to look on the institutes as belonging not to them but to the Department of Agriculture. He suggested that if more local interest were not shown in several counties, the institutes there should be discontinued.2

Varied Programs

In 1906 North Carolina became the first state in the South to hold institutes for women. In that year 21 institutes were scheduled for women in 19 counties. In 1907 the number increased to 50 institutes in 38 counties. The usual practice was to hold the women's institute on the same day and at the same place as the institute for men but in a separate hall. Topics included the farm fruit garden, the farm vegetable garden, farm poultry, making butter, beautifying the home surroundings, home conveniences, literature for the farm home, homemaking, home nursing, the nutritive value of foods, cooking meats and vegetables, making bread, and educating the girls on the farm.

The farmers' institutes took other forms as well. In 1908 the Agricultural Experiment Station, in cooperation with the Norfolk and Southern Railway, operated a Corn Special train through the eastern part of the state from March 22 to April 1. Visits of two hours or more were made in 20 villages and towns along the railroad. Exhibits in one of the rail cars supplemented the talks given by the experts from the college. Later that year, under the auspices of the farmers' institute, both agricultural and "domestic science" instruction were provided by a similar arrangement along the Southern Railway Company lines.

The first farmers' convention was organized by the A&M faculty and held on the campus in July, 1903, with around 500 in attendance. Some farmers brought their families. Speakers covered a wide range of agricultural topics. The event was to become an annual one. Robert W. Scott of Alamance County was elected the first president of the convention and Professor Charles W. Burkett was elected secretary.

At the annual meeting of the convention in 1906, it was affiliated with or made part of the farmers' institute work conducted by the state Department of Agriculture. Later called farm and home week, this annual event was held each summer for the next 50 years on the campus and jointly sponsored by the college and the state Department of Agriculture. In the early years, a women's program was added.
Special institutes were developed at various locations in the state, such as orchard demonstrations in the commercial fruit areas.

In 1911 T.B. Parker was appointed director of farmers' institutes in the state Department of Agriculture, and T.J.W. Broome was named assistant director. One year later James M. Gray replaced Broome as assistant director.

Throughout the farmers' institute days, college and experiment station personnel spent much time on the institute circuit, in addition to their other activities and contacts with farmers. In 1898 Acting Director Withers reported about 10,000 letters received and answered, in addition to the many requests for publications. College and station personnel must have been pleased when a new activity promised to relieve them of some of their off-campus work.

Farm Demonstrations

In 1892 the cotton boll weevil crossed the border from Mexico and 10 years later had covered a large part of the cotton territory of Texas. This insect brought almost complete destruction of the cotton crop in many areas. Bankers and other businessmen, along with farmers, called on the federal government for help.

The government responded. In 1903 Congress appropriated $250,000 to combat the boll weevil. Half was assigned to the Bureau of Entomology, half to the Bureau of Plant Industry. The Bureau of Entomology directed its efforts to finding means of killing the weevil, while the Bureau of Plant Industry worked on producing new crops and developing farm management practices that would make farming successful in spite of the boll weevil. Dr. Seaman A. Knapp, who had spent a lifetime as a farmer, as a professor of agriculture at Iowa State, and in several other positions related to agriculture, was hired to go to Texas with $40,000 of the special appropriation to fight the boll weevil.3

Late in 1903, at a mass meeting of businessmen and farmers at Tyrrell, Texas, Knapp submitted a proposition to establish a demonstration farm under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, provided that the community would select a suitable place and raise by subscription a sufficient amount to cover any losses that might be sustained by the owner and operator of the farm as a result of following the department's directions for planting and cultivation.

His proposal was accepted, and farmer Walter C. Porter volunteered his farm of 70 acres. In spite of boll weevil damage, Porter estimated at the end of the year that he received a profit of $700 more than he probably would have made if he had followed his old practices.

The success of the Porter demonstration attracted wide attention and gave rise to a strong demand for similar demonstrations throughout the state. By the end of 1904 demonstration agents had been hired in Texas, Louisiana, and Arkansas. In 1905 the work was expanded to include Oklahoma and Mississippi, and more than 7,000 farmers agreed to conduct demonstrations on their farms that year.

The funds appropriated by Congress to combat the ravages of the boll weevil were limited to expenditures within the infested area. In 1906 the John D. Rockefeller-supported General Education Board decided to supplement federal appropriations so that work could be started in areas not infested with the boll weevil. It signed an agreement with the secretary of agriculture which provided that the U.S. Department of Agriculture would appoint and supervise the agents in this extended territory. The agents were paid a salary by the General Education Board and each was given an official commission from the Department of Agriculture at a salary of $1.00 per year. This gave them official status and enabled them to use the franking privilege for official business.

First North Carolina Demonstration

As the appropriation from the General Education Board increased, Knapp took in additional territory and in the fall of 1907 sent C.R. Hudson, a graduate of the agricultural college in Alabama, to North Carolina to initiate the work.

Hudson first went to Raleigh with the intention of making that city his headquarters. He arranged for a demonstration on the farm of W.W. Smith, just east of Raleigh, but he reported that the attitude of the people at the state Department of Agriculture was so cold that he moved his headquarters to Statesville. Hudson said the college was willing but had no money to put into the work.4

A meeting was held in Statesville on November 18, 1907, and according to the best information available, James A. Butler was appointed as the first county agent in North Carolina. He began his new duties as of that date. On November 20, 1907, Butler arranged with J.F. Eagles of Route 1, Statesville, to be the first farmer to undertake a demonstration under the supervision of the county agent. Eagles agreed to grow 2.5 acres of corn and 2 acres of cotton according to the recommendations of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Eagles had been on his farm about five years when he participated in the first demonstration. Some years later, he said, "It took me 15 years to get the old place started on a profitable basis; I don't think I ever would have succeeded had it not been for the use of limestone and clover. The best medicine for old worn out soils is good plowing; liberal applications of limestone, phosphoric acid and red clover."5

Hudson soon appointed agents in Rowan, Gaston, Lincoln, Union, Catawba, Mecklenburg, and Cabarrus counties. Twelve additional counties came into the program in 1909.

Almost without exception the first agents were not college graduates. Rather, Hudson tried to select men who were recognized as good farmers and leaders in their communities. Many of them worked only a part of the year, for which they received a salary of $75 per month.6

By 1910 there were 46 agents in 43 counties. To help administer the program, E.S. Millsaps and T.E. Browne were named district agents to assist Hudson. A third district was created in 1911-12, and T.D. McLean was named supervisor of that district. In 1912 the agents reported 2,100 corn demonstrations and 990 farm demonstrations with cotton.

Other crops were added to the demonstration program, which comprised a total of 4,052 demonstrations in 1914. Also in the program were farm cooperators, increasing in number from 2,600 in 1909 to 4,832 in 1914.

Hudson Moves to Raleigh

Hudson continued to make his headquarters at Statesville for a little more than two years. However, Knapp recognized the unsatisfactory relationship between the land-grant colleges and the U.S. Depart­ment of Agriculture; and during the winter of 1908-09 discussed with a number of southern college presidents the desirability of a coordinated program. These discussions led to the signing of memoranda of understanding between the Bureau of Plant Industry and a number of colleges to become effective on July 1, 1909. North Carolina holds the honor of signing the first of these agreements. 7

It was under this agreement that I.O. Schaub began work as boys' corn club agent in North Carolina on July 1, 1909.

While it was not specified in the memorandum of understanding, it was agreed by the college and the department that Hudson would transfer his headquarters from Statesville to an office provided by the college as soon as the move could be arranged. Hudson moved to Raleigh during the winter of 1909-10 and shared an office with Schaub in Agricultural Hall.

The memorandum of understanding stated that the funds to support Schaub's position would come from appropriated funds. However, in a report to the Board of Trustees on May 30, 1911, President Hill stated that the money was derived from the General Education Board -- $2,000 per year for salary plus travel expenses expected to total about $1,000 per year.

In 1911, the North Carolina General Assembly passed an act authorizing boards of county commissioners to make appropriations in cooperation with the farmers' cooperative demonstration work, and farmers in various counties made contributions of a few hundred dollars toward the expenses of the work.

Boys' and Girls' Club Work

When Schaub began working with the farm boys of the state in 1909, he found he was not alone in this work-the state Department of Agriculture was already there. In 1907 T. B. Parker had been hired by the department for demonstration work, and the department provided funds to be used as prizes. Parker did not have a field organization through which to work, but he was successful in enrolling a considerable number of boys in corn clubs and stimulated general interest.8

Schaub and Parker cooperated in the exchange of names and other activities. In 1912 the department transferred its activities to the college and provided funds to hire a second person for the work. Frank Parker, who had been with the department, moved to the college as Schaub's assistant.

Although it was not officially a part of his work, Hudson had carried out some type of poultry club work in Iredell County before Schaub joined the college staff.

Schaub's initial work was largely through the county school superintendents. Dr. J.Y. Joyner, state superintendent of education, was enthusiastic about the work and invited Schaub to all meetings of county superintendents. During the first full year, 1910, Schaub reported an enrollment of nearly 4,000 boys and some girls in corn club work. He also met with the demonstration agents, and most of them were active in promoting club work in their respective counties.

In reporting to the trustees on May 28,1912, President Hill said: "Four hundred and thirty-five boys under Mr. Schaub's tutelage made an average yield of 60.7 bushels, at a cost of 45 cents per bushel. One hundred and twenty-five made over 75 bushels an acre. Charles Parker, of Hertford County, made 196 bushels of dry shelled corn." The average corn yield in the state for these years ranged from 13 to 18 bushels per acre.

In 1911 Schaub received word from Washington that funds were available from the General Education Board to employ someone to handle girls' club work. Mrs. Jane S. McKimmon, who had spent two years on the farmers' institute circuit, was hired, and in 1912 home demonstration agents were at work with girls' tomato clubs in 14 counties. These agents ranged in age from about 40 down to 23-year­old Margaret Scott, daughter of agricultural leader Robert W. Scott of Alamance County.9

Two others from this first group of home demonstration agents who gave considerable time to the effort were Mrs. Lillian W. Capehart in Granville County and Mrs. Blanch Miller in Wilkes.10

During the first year 230 farm girls in the 14 counties grew the required one-tenth acre of tomatoes, and from them they prepared 35,000 cans and sold an unknown amount of fresh tomatoes. All but a few of them showed a profit on their project at the end of the year.
The growing and canning of tomatoes led almost immediately into other canning activities. A soup mixture was especially popular, and once the techniques of canning had been perfected, daughters and mothers began canning a wide variety of fruits and vegetables.
The canning led to marketing. After much effort, a standardized product was produced and marketed under the 4-H label throughout North Carolina and elsewhere.

By 1914, 32 counties were involved in the program, and 1,500 club members reported a total of 259,091 tin cans and glass jars filled with vegetables and fruit. A year later 2,914 girls and 37 counties participated in the program.11

Home Demonstration Work

The mothers of the girls were, of course, interested in the success of their daughters, and in most instances assisted with the canning operation. As the girls expanded their projects to include other vegetables, the interest of the mothers grew accordingly. By the end of the second or third year the mothers themselves were beginning to ask for assistance with other problems in connection with the home.

Knapp wanted to work in the farm home. He realized, however, that this could not be done through a direct approach.12 He had visualized that the garden would lead into the kitchen, from the kitchen to the rest of the home and all of its activities. It was also only a short distance from the family garden to the hen house, and most of the early home agents became poultry specialists --just as they were recognized as gardening and canning specialists.

Ready cash in most of the homes in the South was almost nonexistent. The families' needs and desires were there, but the means to satisfy them could not be found, so most of the projects in the early days had to do with commodities that might be sold and thus increase the family income. The few dollars earned from the sale of canned goods, eggs, and chickens enabled thousands of homemakers to start buying the labor-saving equipment that would lessen the drudgery of homemaking.

One of the first labor-saving devices to gain wide popularity was the fireless cooker. Someone discovered that if one could confine heat in a small space, the cooking process could continue for hours.13

To most people it was unbelievable that a hot stone placed in an insulated container would cook an old rooster until it was tender. But seeing was believing, and in the course of two or three years thousands of homemade fireless cookers were in use on southern farms. It relieved the housewife of hours of labor over a hot stove, and for many of them it meant that a hot dinner could be cooked while the house­wife labored in the field with the husband and the children.

From the kitchen, demonstration work quickly broadened into other areas of the home, especially the making and renovation of clothing and the design and construction of ladies' hats.14 Home agents were soon looked upon as specialists in those fields, also.

Both Schaub and McKimmon traveled extensively. In July and August, 1912, they operated a demonstration train over the Coast Line Railway that traveled 1,200 miles and reached 10,000 people. This train hauled drainage implements, livestock, and field implements. The animals were shown and the tools demonstrated at the several stops.

John A. Arey, one of the pioneer agents and specialists, recalled that travel was primitive at that time. The specialist would generally travel by train to the county seat, where he would be met by the local agent. While in the county, the agent would provide the transportation -- either by buggy or car. Arey said the first agents were encouraged to travel by buggy or horseback; agents riding in automobiles might be perceived as too socially distant from the farmers they were trying to help.15

Jane McKimmon was out almost constantly, traveling to the counties, during the canning season. She described some of the trials and tribulations of early extension work:

One day as I came down a long red clay road with the August heat shimmering in the dust before me, the driver flicked the flies from his horse and I wondered what I had done in this life that I should be traveling on that dreary road, with the thermometer hovering around ninety degrees, to teach somebody how to can tomatoes. But as the old horse and I rounded a bend in the road, the answer came in the smoke curling from two big canners which were puffing away on the courthouse green and in the fifty or more girls peeling fruit, filling cans, and getting ready for my coming.16

An announcement in 1915 gave additional insight into the work­ing of Extension:

Mr. R.L. Sloan, Assistant Director of Farmers' Institutes, will be in Davidson County March 15 to 19 inclusive with stereopticon lantern and slides giving illustrated lectures at night. A variety of slides on field crops, livestock, and a few scenic slides will be shown. In day time, short talks will be made at schools and farms visited.17

Personnel and Program Changes

In the spring of 1913, I.O. Schaub announced that he was leaving the college to become an agricultural representative for the Frisco Railroad. In the four years he had been in charge of extension work at the college he had obviously become one of President Hill's favorite faculty members. In 1910, one year after Schaub joined the staff, Hill reported to the Board of Trustees: "He has been very active, efficient, and zealous in this most important work."

In 1912 Hill reported that overtures had been made to Schaub to accept a position elsewhere at a larger salary and recommended that the college supplement Schaub's salary by $150 per year. Hill said: "His work is hard, and requires constant travelling and leaves him little time at home with his family. In order that we may show our appreciation of his recognized ability and recompensate him some­what for an unusually hard life, I recommend that the College pay him $150 a year."

In reporting to the trustees in 1913, Hill said: "The Extension Department of the College, under the leadership of Prof. Schaub and Mrs. Charles McKimmon ... has brought the college into closer touch with the people of the state than any other instrumentality yet tried."18
Following Schaub's departure, T.E. Browne was placed in charge of boys' club work. In 1916 Browne reported that poultry and pig club work came into the program in 1914. The following year there were some 3,504 boys enrolled in the corn club, 768 in pig club work, and 1,056 in the poultry clubs.19

A reorganization of the work took place in 1915 with Browne in the title of agent, boys' agricultural clubs. A.K. Robertson served as assistant in boys' clubs. J.D. McVean assumed responsibility for the pig club work, and Allen G. Oliver directed the poultry clubs. Despite the title, girls could and did participate in the several areas of work.

A department of Negro boys' farm clubs was added in 1915 with John D. Wray as agent. This work was carried out in cooperation with the Agricultural and Technical College at Greensboro. A crop rotation club was added in 1916, and by 1917 the peanut club, the potato club, and the cotton club had been formed.

Much of the recruiting was done through the public schools. Browne reported that each fall a mailing was made to county school superintendents. The package contained letters to be mailed to each school in the county. A teacher in each school compiled a list of all boys in his class who expressed interest in the work, and this list was mailed to the state office. The state office then contacted the prospec­tive members. Extensive correspondence and instructional material were mailed to the club members from the state office throughout the year.

In 1915, 13 club schools were held in 13 counties. In one or two days, the boys were instructed in the fundamental principles of growing plants and animals. In August, 1915, 222 boys and one girl attended a four-day short course at the college.

The Smith-Lever Act

The demonstration method of education was very successful, or at least very popular, from the beginning. By 1909 in North Carolina, just five years after Seaman A. Knapp's first demonstration in Texas, the A&M College, the state Department of Agriculture, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the General Education Board were all funding or sponsoring farm and home demonstration programs. By early 1914, the 66 farm demonstration agents and the 32 home demonstration agents located in the counties outnumbered the combined college, experiment station, and state Department of Agriculture staffs located in Raleigh.

Despite the rapid growth of the demonstration program, most college administrators did not believe the necessary job could be done without funding from the federal government. Along with some farmers, and commercial interests such as the National Soil Fertility League, they began to push for federal legislation to fund a nationwide extension program.

The first bill was introduced in Congress in 1909. There was considerable opposition, however, particularly from those who did not see a federal role in education and from those in demonstration work who believed their program would be destroyed.20 Also, the details of the arrangement required considerable discussion and negotiation among the several interested parties. Particularly troublesome was the basis on which the federal funds would be allocated. Debates also occurred about what educational methods should be used.

Finally in 1914, bills introduced in both houses by Senator Hoke Smith of Georgia and Representative A.F. Lever of South Carolina were passed, and on May 8, 1914, President Woodrow Wilson signed the Smith-Lever bill into law.

Basically, the Smith-Lever Act provided that extension agents would provide instruction and practical demonstrations in agriculture and home economics to persons not attending college. The system would be organized at county, state, and federal levels.
The administrators at North Carolina A & M College had kept up with the progress of the legislative action. On March 26, 1914, the executive committee of the Board of Trustees directed the president of the college to allocate a sufficient amount of money to prepare rooms in the agricultural building for the new workers in extension.

When the executive committee met on August 27, President Hill was authorized to sign, on behalf of the Board of Trustees, the memorandum of understanding between the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the college pertaining to cooperation in extension work.21 A second motion established a Division of Extension Work to be carried on in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the state Department of Agriculture. A third motion elected B.W. Kilgore director of the Division of Extension Work. Technically, extension was regarded as a branch or part of the North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station.

In his first extension annual report, covering the period from July 1, 1914, to June 30,1915, Kilgore listed 13 projects under which the work was being conducted: (1) administration, (2) printing and distribution of publications, (3) county agents, (4) home economics, including girls' club work, (5) boys' club work, (6) dairy extension work, (7) fruit and truck growing, (8) agronomy, (9) cotton grading and marketing, (10) plant diseases, (11) Negro boys' club work, (12) drainage, and (13) beef cattle, sheep, and swine.

Kilgore said the extension force consisted of a director and 18 full time extension workers or specialists. In addition, 11 other workers were giving approximately half their time to the extension service, with nine devoting the rest of their time to the experiment station, and two to college teaching. The county force had grown to 71 farm demonstration agents and 37 home demonstration agents. In addition, 137 women were in charge of local clubs for girls and women. They received a small payment for their work.

An Agricultural Editor

The Smith-Lever Act provided that cooperative extension work should consist of "the giving of instruction and practical demonstrations in agriculture and home economics to persons not attending or resident of said colleges in the several communities, and imparting to such persons information on said subjects through field demonstrations, publications, and otherwise." The act further specified that up to 5 percent of each annual appropriation could be applied to the printing and distribution of publications.

Frank H. Jeter was hired in the new position of agricultural editor in November, 1914, thus beginning his 40-year tenure with the college. He was housed in downtown Raleigh. In addition to extension publications, he was responsible for the editing and printing of publications of the experiment station and the Department of Agriculture.22

On February 13, 1915, a systematic method of putting information of an agricultural nature before the people of the state was instituted with the first weekly issue of Extension Farm-News. The paper was devised mainly as a "clipsheet" for newspapers and agricultural papers circulating in North Carolina, but it also went to the demonstration agents and other employees of the station, college, and Department of Agriculture, and to county superintendents of education, superintendents of city schools, members of the faculties of other colleges in the state, and teachers in farm life schools. Each issue averaged about 1,000 copies. On special occasions, when the sheet contained an item of particular interest to a group such as the Farmers' Union, additional copies were printed for distribution to their local secretaries.

The new extension service assumed the cost of printing publications containing recommendations for farmers. A primary objective of the new agricultural editor in editing and distributing extension publications, in Jeter's words, was "to make them in popular style so that they may be easily read and understood. Very simple style has been used because many of them are used in some of the projects with the young people's clubs."

Jane McKimmon reported that readability of publications in the early years was a problem:

Sometimes we found information sent out from the U.S. Department of Agriculture so technical in the terms used and so terse in directions for procedures, that it became necessary for us to interpret them to the people. As I read canning formulae, it sometimes seemed as if the scientist were writing his bulletin for the benefit of his brother scientist, not for the person who desired to can; the bulletin language was not intelligible to the laity. The trouble, however, was not with the information the bulletin contained. The scientist's careful research and his pronouncements on what he had found necessary in food conservation were invaluable, and we followed his advice; but we tried to make what he had to say more understandable to the people who were canning on the farm.23

During 1915-16, Jeter reported that the issuing of multigraph letters to the members of the agricultural clubs, the homemade meat clubs, the dairymen, the credit unions, and other groups continued to be an important part of the work. The multigraph and mailing equipment had been used to turn out, on an average, approximately 75,000 form letters each month.

The new organization was off to a good start. Western District Agent E.S. Millsaps, writing to his agents on the last day of 1915, told them that 1915 was "for us in demonstration work the best year that we have ever known." He urged them to "press forward for greater things for the New Year."

There would be opportunities. Food and feed exports from the United States to Europe that had totaled $132 million in the eight­month period ending in March, 1914, increased to $388 million for the same period ending in March, 1915. During the same period, the demand for cotton had dropped. North Carolina farmers needed to adjust their production to meet the demands of a world at war.

NOTES TO CHAPER 7

  1. For detailed reports on the farmers' institutes, see James Finley Kretsch­mann, "The North Carolina Department of Agriculture," graduate thesis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1955, and The Bulletin, periodical of the North Carolina Department of Agriculture throughout the years that the Institute program was in operation. From 1903 until 1910 the October issue carried an annual summary of the activities.
  2. The Bulletin. North Carolina Department of Agriculture, October, 1909, 80 pp.
  3. Martin, O.B. The Demonstration Work. San Antonio, Texas: The Naylor Co., 3rd Edition, 1941, pp. 4-5.
  4. C. R. Hudson personal papers, North Carolina State University Archives.
  5. Schaub, I.O. Agricultural Extension Work: A Brief History. N.C. Agricultural Extension Service, Circular No. 377,1953, p. 17.
  6. Some of the early agents were T.J.W. Broom, Union County; J.W. Cameron, Anson; F.S. Walker, Rockingham; R.D. Goodman, Cabarrus; G.W. Falls, Pasquotank; J.P. Herring, New Hanover; A.G. Hendren, Wilkes; F.E. Patton, Yancey and Rutherford; R.W. Gray, Graham, Jackson, and Cherokee; G.S. Mitchell, Gates; G.W. Herring, Sampson; W.L. Smarr, Lincoln and McDowell; J.R. Sams, Madison and Polk; E.B. Weaver, Buncombe; R.W. Graeber, Mecklenburg and Iredell; and H.E. Webb, Sr., Guilford, Alamance, and Vance.
  7. Schaub, op. cit., p. 19.
  8. Ibid,. p. 22.
  9. McKimmon, Jane Simpson. When We're Green We Grow. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1945, pp. 15-21.
  10. Other agents beginning long extension careers during this period included Rosalind Redfearn, Anson County; Marcia Albertson, Pasquotank County; and Mrs. Mary H. Lamb, Sampson County.
  11. For a detailed account of 4-H work in North Carolina, see James W. Clark, Jr., Clover All Over. Office of 4-H and Youth, N.G State University, 1984,300 pp.
  12. At the first meeting of women agents held in Washington, according to Schaub, Knapp told them not to go into the farmer's house and tell him they had come to teach his wife to cook. He told them the man of the house would knock them down, and that he would be justified in doing it out of respect to his wife-whether or not she was a good cook (Schaub, p.28).
  13. To operate the fireless cooker, a stone was heated in a fire and then placed in a container of water. Heat from the stone heated the water and the product being cooked. Schaub wrote that the fireless cooker of that day represented as great an advance in the standard of living as did the electric range of a later day (Schaub, p. 28)
  14. A little later one of the popular projects of farm women was the making of dress forms. Thousands of farm women for the first time saw themselves as others saw them, and Schaub speculated that this project aided in the promotion of nutrition work (Schaub, p. 29).
  15. Personal interview with William L. Carpenter, 1976.
  16. McKimmon, op. cit., p. 25.
  17. Extension Farm-News. March 13, 1915. In the stereopticon lantern, forerunner to the electric-powered slide projector, a kerosene burner provided the light.
  18. Most land-grant college and university administrators, like President Hill, viewed an extension or off-campus program as an important and necessary adjunct to their research and resident teaching programs. The level of farming was still at a mediocre state, while information which could improve "the situation was backing up on the shelves of the research establishment.
  19. Browne, T. E. Boys' Club Work. N.C. Agricultural Extension Service, Circular No.8, 1916, 16 pp.
  20. C.R. Hudson received a letter from the Office of Farmers' Cooperative Demonstration Work in the U.S. Department of Agriculture dated April 11, 1912, which was signed "23". This letter claimed that the proposed Smith-Lever bill would "undermine and destroy the Demonstration Work." It suggested a lobbying effort with Senators and Congressmen in an effort to get the bill changed or killed. In a note attached to this letter (C. R. Hudsonpersonaifile, N.C. State University Archives) I. O. Schaub wrote that the writer was O.B. Martin, then in charge of club work nationally.
  21. Schaub, op. cit., pp. 37-38.
  22. Jeter was assisted by A. O. Alford who started as a mailing clerk in about 1919 and advanced to assistant editor before becoming an early manager of the college print shop in 1941. For a detailed account of agricultural information activities, see William L. Carpenter, Let The People Know. N.C. Agricultural Extension Service and N.C. Agricultural Experiment Station, 1978, 172 pp.
  23. McKimmon, op. cit., p. 42.

College of Agriculture and Life Sciences teaching, research, extension