Hyperphosphatemia is one of the most serious complications in End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients. It may bring about cardiovascular diseases and increase the mortality. There are many reasons that lead to hyperphosphatemia, including the reduction in renal excretion, increased absorption in gastrointestinal tract, food, and drug. The most significant reason is reduction in renal excretion. Current methods to control blood phosphates, including hemodialysis, dietary phosphate restrictions, and phosphate binding medications, are not satisfying to control the patients’ blood phosphate to reach clinically acceptable targets. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop some phosphate-selective filtration media to create a safe, effective phosphate adsorptive device, which will be integrated in the hemodialysis process. In this study, highly porous alumina particles, with surface treated by trimesic acid (TMA), were tested for their morphologies, phosphate adsorption capacities and blood compatibilities. Effect of particle diameter, surface area and phosphate concentration were studied. Results showed that the surface-engineered alumina particles demonstrated excellent phosphate adsorption in both buffer solution and bovine whole blood. The material is hence promising in hyperphosphatemis and will be used in the hemofiltration device in future studies.