Dorymyrex elegans is one of the rarest ants in North America. It is known from only two ancient inland ridges in Central Florida, the Lake Wales Ridge and the Brooksville Ridge. This nocturnal species is behaviorally timid, often retreating to the nest at the slightest disturbance. Perhaps, because of its inconspicuousness, this species has not been studied since its description in 1988, such that little is known about the biology of this ant. Even on the ridges, it is not found everywhere, appearing to prefer areas of scrub habitat. Here we explore the biology of this species. More specifically, we test whether the populations on these ridges, which have themselves been separated for about 1 million years, have diverged genetically. Specimens were collected from both ridges to compare the molecular and morphological traits of individuals in the two populations. If the populations have diverged, they should display molecular differences. If the populations have diverged and undergone selection or drift, they should display both molecular divergence and morphological divergence.